The Papworths of Hitchin half hundred - The Broket Archive

The Papworths of Hitchin half hundred
to 1650

By the early 18th C there were many Papworths living in Hitchin town, Hertfordshire, some with memorials in the parish church with a coat of arms. But what about earlier centuries? The first 25 years of the parish register (from 1562) suggest only about 3 Papworth households there then, and Wills and tax records from the preceding 25 years suggest one main line. But what about earlier than that?  Again it seems that there was only the one family stretching back through the generations, but records naturally become scarcer the further back you go—indeed none have reliably been found before the early 16th C—and it may simply be that records of the main, wealthier, line are all that were kept or survived. As for the second half of the 16th C and later, in broad outline it seems that the wealth of the family descended down two lines from Edmund (d 1540). The line from his eldest son William (d 1566) mostly lived in nearby Charlton and by the late 17th C had fallen on hard times. The other line descended from Edmund’s second son Robert (d by 1546), and spawned the gentleman families of the 17th and later centuries. This chart presents an outline of the clan and what follows below is the evidence:

[To follow]

Contents of this page:

Background
15th C
Early 16th C
Mid 16th C
Late 16th C
17th C

Background

The population of Hitchin in 1563 is estimated at 245 families.1

No Papworths are to be found in the Visitations of Hertfordshire or London, nor in Chauncy’s The historical antiquities of Hertfordshire. So, the pre 17th C family was not of the landed gentry class, however 16th Wills and tax records suggest they were well-to-do Yeomen, owning several properties in the town. One appears to have been a Maltster, another a Mercer, and members of a branch in the neighbouring parish of Ippollitts were Millers. Then by 1628, at least, one Hitchin Papworth was styled a gentleman. The historian Hine said that the Hitchin Papworths were wool-staplers from 1350-1825, citing Chauncy (who didn’t actually mention them).2 Hine’s evidence seems to have been a tenuous link between the burial of several Papworths in the north chapel of the church, where one of the paintings on the window might have been St Blaize, patron saint of wool-combers and wool-staplers. Wool-staplers were middlemen, buying wool from the farmer, sorting and grading it, and selling it on.

Papworths and Brokets would have had connections in and around the market town of Hitchin from at least the 15th C. The first recorded intermarriage was in the mid 16th C when Alice, daughter of William Papworth, married William, eldest son of William Brokett of Hitchin. This would have been a good match as both families appear to have been up-and-coming Yeomen, each with several substantial properties in the parish.

15th C Hitchin Papworths

Currently we know of only one, possibly two, records of 15th C Hitchin Papworths.

1. 1464: Will of William Papworth of Hitchin. Hine quoted William bequeathing “2 ewe lambs unto my two men servants and 2 to my mayde servants”,3 but the Will is currently lost.+Read more

2. Otherwise, the only other record of a Papworth from the 15th C Hitchin found so far is of Richard—and it may be from the early 16th C—as follows:+Read more

The relationship of Richard Papworth to the William who died 1464 and the William who died 1520 (as follows) remains unknown, but perhaps he was of the generation in between.

Hitchin Papworths 1500-40

Prior to the lay subsidy of 1524-5 assessments “had become increasingly conventional and remote from reality”,10 and none had a systematic list of Hitchin tax payers. The 1524-5 returns for Hitchin are largely legible, although in a few places are damaged and faded.11 Edmund Papworth was assessed at £4 in goods, due 2s for Hitchin Portman, and it’s possible that another Papworth or two might have been recorded in the damaged parts, given the Will of William in 1520 that also mentioned William—albeit under 21—and the the 1526 land deed mention of Robert and John. But aside from subsidies, the following references from Wills, catalogue records and Common Pleas actions have been found from 1500-40:

1517: Will of Jamys Tydye of Hitchin, written 29 Sep 1517.12 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Margaret.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
3. Bequests:

· to 2 sons and 2 daughters when they reach 20 years.
· to sister Alis Sheppard, Sir Richarde Lacy, old Thomas Tydy and his daughter, godson John Garter, and to Edmunde Papworth his ray gowne.

4. Residue to wife Margaret.
5. Executors: Wife Margaret and John Lacy.
6. Overseers: John Hemynges the elder and John Tristram.
7. Witnesses: Sir John Leventhrope vicar of Hichyne, William Papworth, Roger Lilly, Jamys Chatam with others.

Discussion:
1. The Will shows that there were at least 2 adult male Papworths in Hitchin in 1517. For want of other contemporary records to namesakes, William was likely the one who died in 1520, and Edmund his eldest son.

1520: Will of William Papworth of Hychyn, written 15 Sep 1520, proved 6 Nov 1520.13+Read more

Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Johan.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
3. Bequests:

· “to the gilding of the rood loft a quarter of malt” mentioned by Hine.14
· “To my wife half my head howse to dwell in as long as she stays unmarried and Edmond my son to have the whole house to himself [if she marries].”
· To son John my tenement next to Cappis Welle and 7½ acres of arable land in Walsworth Field.
· To son William my tenement next to it and 6 acres of land in Maydencroft Field.
· Edmond my son to pay his brothers John and William 40s each when they reach 21.
· Some of the silver spoon bequests perhaps were to godchildren.
· James Tydy was perhaps a son of his namesake (d 1517).

4. Residue to wife.
5. Executors: Wife Johan and son Edmond.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Sir John Leventhrop vicar of Hitchin, George Graveley, WIlliam Kent with others.

Discussion:
1. William mentioned wife Johan and sons Edmond, John and William, but no daughters.

2. There can be no doubt that son Edmond was the Edmund who died in 1540.

3. Sons John and William were still under 21, therefore younger than Edmond, and born after 1499. Definite records survive for son John, but not for son William. The next record of a William found is from 1540, and it is clearly not of this William but of Edmond’s son William (d 1566). Subsequent records of Williams in this time frame are also clearly all of Edmond’s son.

4. Mentions of John Papworth in these documents concerning Papworths:

· 1520: This Will of William Papworth. John was under 21, so born after 1499.
· 1532: Will of George Graveley “John Papworthe my brother”. Presumably the son of William (d 1520), and so aged 32 at the most in 1532. Alternatively, John was an otherwise unknown older John Papworth of the generation of William who died in 1520.
· 1540: Will of Edmund Papworthe. “John papworth my brother” co-supervisor.
· 1545: Will of Robert Snedalle of Hitchin. John Papworthe, father of 4 children, was a co-executor. Probably brother of Edmund died 1540.
· 1548: Letters of attorney from John Papworthe of Hitchin, Yeoman.
· 1557: Will of William Hubbard of Hitchin, Yeoman.
· 1558: Co-overseer of the Will of Elizabeth Fryday.
· 1559: Co-executor of the Will of John Lucas.
· 1560: ‘Brother’ (i.e. in-law) of Alice Kent, as overseer of her Will. Alice left 3s 4d “to all his childrene”. Also—if the same John—he was a witness to the Will.
· 1560: Will of Leonard Daye of Hitchin, written 12 Mar 1559/60. John lived in a house owned by Leonard.
· 1565: “The 9 daie [Nov] was buryed John Papworth”—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register, which survives from 1562.
· 1565: Will of William Papworthe of Hitchin. John Papworthe the elder a witness.
· 1583/4: “The 12 daie [Feb] was buried John’ Papworth”—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register.

5. Calling it his ‘hed howse’ implies this was his main property and he had another house or houses. If so, he probably singled this one out as he wanted to ensure his Widow could continue to live in the main house—so long as she stayed single. Subsequently it should devolve entirely to Edmond, and indeed Edmund left it to his eldest son William, and he in turn to his son Edward. It was referred to in the 1556 Survey and 1591 Rental as the house next to the Swan [Inn].

6. He left a quarter of malt in 4 bequests so it looks as though he was a Maltster (among other things perhaps—he mentioned ‘the shopp’ and ‘the bruying vessel’).

7. This enables the following chart: [To follow]

1526 Dec: Deed of gift of two pightles and 3r of land at Charlton, Hitchin, Hertfordshire, by Nicholas Franckelyn of Hitchin, Hertfordshire, yeoman, to Edmund Papworth, Robert Papworth, and John Papworth.15

1527 26 Dec: Grant. By William Hyde of Stevenage, yeoman, for a sum of money paid by Roger Hyde lying “in extremis”, to George Graveley of Hitchin, Edward Papworth of the same, and William Robynson of Stevenage of Wilcokkys Croft at Stonall, Stevenage and land in Frythfelde and Sedcopp field, Stevenage. Field names given. Seal missing.16 Comment: No further record of an Edward Papworth has so far been found in this period, suggesting that this 1527 record was a misrecording or alias of Edmund—as in 1647—although he could of course also have been a different person, of whom just this isolated record has survived.

1531 20 Jan: Edmund Papworthe made a plea at the court of Common Pleas at Westminster against William Clerke of Hitchin Tallow Chandler, and William Perlys of Hitchin Butcher for a debt of 20 marks each. Neither had appeared many times to face the charge and the court ordered the Hertfordshire sheriff to exact them from county court to county until they are outlawed if they do not appear:17

1532: Will of George Graveley of Hichyn, written 5 May 1532.18 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Agnes.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
3. Bequests to:

· Wife Agnes, including his house in Bancroft street between a tenement of Anthony Walgrave gentleman on the north side and the house belonging to the fraternity or brotherhood on the south for term of her life.
· Daughter Johane.
· Sons Thomas (the Bancroft street house after Agnes), Edmunde, John (all the real estate in Graveley and Cheisfelde).
· The infant my wife is pregnant with.
· “John Fridaye my father inlawe £20”.
· “unto John Papworthe my brother a baye geldynge and a graye nagge also”.


4. Residue to his children when they reach the age of 18.
5. Executors: Father in law John Friday and Robert Snedalle (d 1546).
6. Overseer: none.
7. Witnesses: Sir Umfrie Cottun vicar of Hitchin, Thomas Browne, Jamys Lyon, with others.

Discussion:
1. John Papworthe was obviously not George Graveley’s actual brother, or else they would have had the same surname; for the term ‘brother’, see below. One or other of them might have married the other’s sister, i.e. was their brother-in-law, or one of each of their parents might have remarried to each other, making George and John step brothers. Indeed, they may not even have been that closely related. But as with Edward Brocket of Dunton’s Will, George and John most likely had a kinship of some kind. George had just mentioned “John Fridaye my father inlawe”, so if John had been George’s literal brother-in-law you might have expected him to have said so. For other records of John Papworth, see here.

2. That John Fridaye was George’s father-in-law probably means that George’s wife Agnes was formerly a Fryday. In her Will of 1558 Elizabeth Fryday, Widow, bequeathed all her real estate to Thomas and John Graveley and appointed the latter her sole executor. These two may have been the sons mentioned by George Graveley here in 1532. George mentioned a daughter Johane, but not Elizabeth, however, so perhaps Elizabeth Fryday’s relationship to the Graveleys was through her husband. “Elizabeth Fryday, widow of John Fryday of Hitchin, yeoman was the daughter of John Hemming or Emmyng of Hitchin, yeoman, who lived in Bancroft in the house later called The Hermitage. In his will dated 1524 he left £10 to her and her two children. Her husband John’s will proved in January 1535/6 does not include any bequests to their children, but does include John Graveley and Thomas Graveley, his daughter’s sons.”19 So Thomas and John Graveley would have been Elizabeth’s grandsons, her daughter’s sons.

3. Reference to “the last Will and testament of my father John Graveley”.

In-laws

Collateral kinship terms like brother, sister, cousin, weren’t always used precisely in 16th C records. For reasons of affection or brevity, the more cumbersome ‘brother/sister-in-law’ was sometimes shortened to ‘brother/sister’, and the term ‘step brother/sister’ is seldom seen. In his Will of 1598 Edward Brocket of Dunton appointed “My lovinge brother Richard Pryor” co-supervisor of his Will. Richard was actually husband of a first cousin of Edward, so calling Richard ‘brother’ there must have been a term of affection towards an in-law relative, as opposed to a reference to an actual sibling, or even brother-in-law. Edward’s other co-supervisor was Robert Hynde, whom he called “my trustie & loveinge Frynd”. While too much can be read into single comments, no kin relationship between Robert and Edward has been found, and the term ‘friend’ rather than ‘brother’ there may reflect this.20

Relevant occurrences of kinship terms in these documents concerning Papworths:

· 1532: Will of George Graveley “John Papworthe my brother”. John was obviously not George’s actual brother.
· 1532: Will of George Graveley “John Fridaye my father in lawe”.
· 1556: Will of Michell Cowper of Henlow “my brother in Lawe Willyam Papworthe” co-executor with Michell’s wife.
· 1558: Will of John Monke of Hitchin, Draper. John’s sole executor was “William Papworth my brother”. William was in fact John’s brother-in-law—John was the husband of Elizabeth, William’s sister.
· 1560: Will of Alice Kent “John Papworth my brother to be my overseare”. This meant brother-in-law—John was the brother of Edmund Papworth, Alice’s first husband.
· 1560: Will of Leonard Daye “I make my brother William Papworth overseer”. William and Leonard’s relationship hasn’t been determined.
· 1565: Will of William Papworthe Overseers: “my brother in law William Cowpare of London and George Underwood my sonne in law” [husband of Alice who married William Brokett and later George Underwood.
· 1591 and 1620: Half-brothers William Audley and Robert Papworth in their Wills each referred to their ‘sisters’ Cooper and Agnes, technically half sisters of at least one of them.
· 1624: Will of Michael Papworth of Chaulton, Yeoman. Michael mentioned the children of his 3 sons-in-law, and the record of the marriage of one of his daughters to one of them shows Michael used the term ‘son-in-law’ as we do today.

1533 Hilary: Edmund Papworth made a plea at the court of Common Pleas at Westminster against Richard Astry late of St Albans Yeoman for a debt of 20 marks and against John Serley late of Edworth in the county of Bedford Husbandman for a debt of 40s. Neither had appeared many times to face the charge and the court ordered the Hertfordshire sheriff to to get them to court on 27 April 1533:21

1533-8: Chancery pleadings addressed to Sir Thomas Audley as Lord Chancellor. Plaintiff: Edmund Papworthe, yeoman. Defendant: Thomas Lawrence, husband of Ellen, late the wife of Edward Felde. Subject: Detention of deeds relating to a messuage in Hitchin, whereof complainant has bought the reversion from John, son of the said Edward, and refusal to permit repairs.22

1540: Will of Elizabethe Webb of Hitchin, written 1540.23 Summary of the Will:

1. Widow, former husband’s name not mentioned.
2. To be buried in Hitchin churchyard.
3. Bequests:

· “unto Edmunde Papworthes childrene 13s 4d the which was my husbonds will also to Elizabeth Papworth a bedsted”.
· various small items to Master Pulter, Master Parishe, and Susane Dumno.

4. Residue to Richard Dumno.5. Executor: Richard Dumno.
6. Overseer: Leonarde Day.
7. Witnesses: Sir Thomas Crosdayle parish priest of Hichyne, Leonarde Day and Richard Dumno with others.

Discussion:
1. Edmunde Papworth would have been the one who died between November that year and March 1541 and whose Will mentioned 5 children. One was Elizabeth, already married to Mounke, so the Elizabeth Papworth mentioned here by Elizabeth Webb was probably of Edmund’s generation, perhaps his sister or sister-in-law. That the bequest was her husband’s will suggests that the relationship to the Papworths was with Elizabeth Webb’s husband.

1540: Will of Edmund Papworthe, written 3 Nov 1540, proved 11 Mar 1540/1.24+Read more


Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in Hitchin churchyard.
3. Bequests (including 4 houses and 2 copyholdings):

· “I geue vnto Alice my wif my house that I dwell in so long as she keape hir self vnmaried And yf she do marye or departe the worlde than I will that william my sonne haue yt”
· “I geue vnto Roberte my sonne my house that I purchaside of William Parrys”
· “And also [to son Roberte] the reuersion of the house that I purchaside of John felde in the which John laurennce doo dwell”
· “I geue vnto the seid Roberte my copie callide wymyngham”
· “I geue vnto Jamys my sonne my copie callid a dolle”
· “and [also to son James] a house whiche I haue by copie lying at portmyll”.
· to daughter Alice £7 at marriage or aged 20.
· a debt owing to Alice Parrys, Widow, to be paid half by wife Alice and half by son Robert.

3. Residue to wife Alice.
4. Sole executrix: wife Alice.
5. Supervisors: Brother John Papworth and George Kent.
6. Witnesses: Henrie Mallet my curate, Robert Onedall, Richarde Chamber, Richarde Baldoke, John Dardes, with others.

Discussion:
1. Edmund was a Mercer with a shop. He was the eldest son of William Papworth, died 1520, who also had a shop. Edmund, first mention so far found in 1517, was probably also the Edward Papworth mentioned in 1527—two other Hitchin Papworths also used both Edmund and Edward interchangeably in the next century.

2. His wife Alice subsequently married Thomas Kent, and died 1560.

3. Children: William, Robert, Elizabeth Mounke, Alice (unmarried and under 21), James.

4. Edmund’s family house that he left to his Widow so long as she stayed single, was probably his father William’s ‘hed howse’. After Edmund’s wife it should devolve to their eldest son William, and the 1556 Survey confirms it to have been the house next to le Swanne, quit rent 6s, in William’s possession.

5. The numerous records cited below of William Papworth—from this 1540 Will of Edmund, through the 1540s, 50s and 60s up to his own Will of 1565—portray a prominent member of the Hitchin Yeoman community, and there can be no doubt that they all concern one person, this William son of our Edmund here. No record of the William Papworth of the previous generation, the son of William (d 1520), has been found.

6. In 1556 son James still held the properties Edmund left him, but he wasn’t mentioned in his mother’s Will of 1560. In 1591 one of them was referred to as previously belonging to “James Papworth the innocent”. James probably suffered from what is now called Learning Difficulties.26 Had he died by 1591? A James Papworth was buried in Hitchin in 1589 and 1590. The other one married Winifred Kent, who was recorded as a Widow in 1598. Following are the records found of Jameses in these documents concerning Papworths:

· 1545: Bequest in the Will of Robert Snedalle. To James Papworth 20s.
· 1546: Bequest in the Will of William Audeley. To James Papworth 20s.
· 1560: Not mentioned in the Will of his mother. Had he died?
· 1565 Sep: “The 24 daie were maryed Jeames Papworth & Winifred Kent”—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register, which survives from 1562. 4 daughters recorded baptised between 1566-73.
· 1589: James Papworth buried 10 Jul 1589—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register.
· 1590: James Papworth buried 28 Jul 1590—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register.
· No further entries in the Hitchin Parish Register for a James Papworth before 1650.

The 1545 and 46 records could either have been of ‘James the innocent’ the brother of William (d 1566) and Elizabeth Munke, or—less likely—of James who married Winifred Kent in 1565.

7. Son Robert, however, had died by 16 May 1547, perhaps by 24 Jul 1546, and by 1566 the properties Edmund had left him in 1540 were held by Robert’s son Robert. We know this for the following reasons:

1. 1544-7: The Defendants in a Chancery suit were William Audeley and Joan his wife, executrix and late the wife of Robert Papworth of Hitchin, yeoman.
2. Robert wasn’t mentioned in the Will of of William Audeley [snr], written 24 Jul 1546.
3. 1544-1551: William, son and executor of William Audeley [snr] was Plaintiff in another suit. This must have been after 16 May 1547, when William Audeley senior’s Will was proved.

Robert’s Will has so far not been found. He died young, perhaps intestate.

8. Edmund’s daughter Elizabeth Mounke was bequeathed a quarter of malt. She was clearly married by 1540. Other records of Elizabeth in these documents concerning Papworths:

· 1545: Bequest in the Will of Robert Snedalle. To Elizabeth Mounke 20s.
· 1546: Bequest in the Will of William Audeley. To Elizabeth Munke 20s.
· 1558: The Will of her husband John Monke referred to “Elizabeth late my wiff” showing that Elizabeth had died by Oct 1558. John mentioned their children.
· 1560: Bequests in the Will of her mother Alice Kent “to the 7 childrene of John Moonke which he hade by my doughter Elizabeth his wiff £13 6s 8d a peace to be paide to them severallye when they cume to the age of 21 yeres”; and “I geve more to John Monke a fetherbede a payre of sheates a bolstare a cople of pillowebeares”.
· 1565: William, Elizabeth’s brother, directed his wife to pay these 1560 legacies from his mother, and others from John Munke, to John Munke’s children in his Will.

9. Brother John Papworth. For other records of John, see here.

10. Edmund’s wish to be buried in Hitchin churchyard was fulfilled. 20 years later, his wife Alice willed to be buried there too, “nyghe to my husbonde Edmunde Papworthe decessde”.

11. With the evidence thus far we can construct the following chart:
[To follow]

Hitchin Papworths 1541-1567

1. Wills and other records 1541-1567
2. Tax records to 1567
3. Parish Registers to 1567

1. Wills and other records 1541-1567

1544-7: Chancery pleadings addressed to Thomas Wriotheseley, Lord Wriotheseley as Lord Keeper or Lord Chancellor. Plaintiff: John Eaddysden [of Hitchin], yeoman. Defendants: William Audeley and Joan his wife, executrix and late the wife of Robert Papworth of Hitchin, yeoman. Subject: Corn entrusted to the said Papworth for malting.27 See William Audeley.

1544-7: Plaintiff: John, grandson of Humphrey Flynders. Defendants: John Papworth and Thomas Upton. Subject: Messuage in Shefford. Bedfordshire.28 The John Flynders v John Papworth and Thomas Upton answer, dated 1450-1550, is probably the same case.29

1544-1551: Plaintiff: William, son and executor of William Audeley. Defendant: William Papeworth. Subject: Lease of tithe corn of Great Wymondley. Hertfordshire.30 This must have been after 16 May 1547, when William Audeley senior’s Will was proved. The suit was still not apparently resolved in 1603-25.

1545: Will of Robert Snedalle of Hichyn, written 12 Nov 1545.31 Summary of the Will:

1. Robert was unmarried, or perhaps a Widower without surviving children.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
3. Bequests (all of goods and chattells):

· to the 4 children of John Papworth £4, i.e. 20s each. This was immediately following bequests to 4 male Snedalls.
· to James Papworth 20s.
· to Elizabeth Mounke 20s.
· to Robert Papworth 20s.
· to [the] 2 children of William Papworth 40s, i.e. 20s each.”
· to godchildren a sheep each.
· to John Graveley, Thomas Graveley and Johane Graveleye Olivere £3, i.e. 20s each. These 3—or at least their namesakes—were also left bequests by Elizabeth Fryday in 1558.

4. Residue at the disposition of the Executors John Papworth and John Dards, adding “And the said John Dards shall nat medell with no parte of my goodes”.
5. Overseer: Thomas Parrys
6. Witnesses: William Pultere, William Audeley, William Papworth, William Hertrede, Leonard Daye, with others.

Discussion:
1. Giving so many bequests to Papworths and appointing one his co-executor—probably the brother of Edmund (d 1540)—suggests that Robert Snedalle had a close relationship to the Papworth family. Perhaps his wife had been one, if he had been married, or his sister had married one of them.

2. Be that as it may, the Will is evidence that William Papworth, son of Edmund, had 2 children by 1546.

3. Robert, Edmund’s son, was still alive. He had died by 1547.

1546: Will of William Audeley of Hitchin Yeoman, written 24 Jul 1546.32 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in the south quire of Hitchin Parish Church.
3. Bequests. William left several properties, and after generous gifts to the poor and for prayers for his soul, left bequests to his unmarried daughter Johan, his son William, daughter Agnes and wife Alice. The only other legatees were:

· to 2 daughters of William Papworth each 10s
· to my brother’s children each 2s
· to my godchildren each 4d
· to James Papworth 20s
· to Elizabeth Munke 20s
· to William Pulter gentleman 40s

4. Residue to son William
5. Executors: Son William Audeley and brother John Audeley.
6. Overseers: Edward Brokett and Thomas Parrys.
7. Witnesses: John Papworth, William Papworth, Edwarde Hurste with others.

Discussion:
1. William mentioned just the one son—William. He was with little doubt the William whose Will was written 10 Sep 1574, and whose wife Joan’s Will was proved in 1584.

2. Apart from his own family, godchildren, and William Pulter, William left bequests to 3 Papworths, at least two of them siblings: William, James and Elizabeth Munke. William was also a witness.

3. The bequest to the two daughters of William Papworth provides a latest birth date of early 1546 for the younger. The 1560 Will of Alice Kent—William Papworth’s mother—mentioned one, Alice, still a minor and unmarried. The 1565 Will of their father William Papworth himself mentioned 3 unmarried daughters under 20.

4. James Papworth, as just suggested, could either have been ‘James the innocent’ the brother of William and Elizabeth Munke, or—less likely—the James who married Winifred Kent in 1565, perhaps their uncle; see above.

5. Elizabeth Munke was the sister of William and James Papworth.

6. That William didn’t also leave a bequest here to William, James and Elizabeth’s brother Robert, the previous husband of his own son William’s wife Joan, suggests that Robert had died by 24 Jul 1546, when this Will was written, and that his own son William had perhaps already married Joan. Be that as it may, leaving bequests to 3 probable Papworth siblings points to a close relationship with their father, Edmund (d 1540).

7. The witness John Papworth was an uncle of the 3 Papworth siblings, a brother of Edmund (d 1540). The witness William Papworth died 1566, and was the son of Edmund (d 1540) and the father of the two daughters left 10s each here by William Audeley.

8. The first overseer was doubtless Edward Brokett of Letchworth, a prominent Esquire in and around Hitchin and Sheriff of the County the following year—no other contemporary adult Edwards are known, other than his son, scarcely 30 years old in 1546 and unlikely to have been the overseer. Thomas Parrys was a wealthy and prominent Hitchin Gentleman. In 1543 he was deputy bailiff of Hitchin to Sir Ralph Sadler.33 and in the 1556 Hitchin Manor court of survey he was one of the jurors. He was also overseer of the Wills of Robert Snedalle in 1545-6 and William Brokett of Hitchin 1556-7. He was probably not the same Thomas Parrys, overseer of the Wills of William and Joan Audley 36 years later in 1582 below.

1548-9: Letters of attorney from John Papworthe of Hitchin, Herts, yeoman, to John Gaddesden, attesting bargain and sale of his interest in a lease of closes at Cambleton, Beds, granted by Henry VIII, dated 2 Edw. VI.34 For other records of John, see here.

1552-3: William Papworth purchased a toft and a garden in Hitchyn from Wm. Frauncys Esq.35

1556: Will of Michell Cowper of Henlow, Bedfordshire, Yeoman, written 2 Jul 1556.36 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Elizabeth.
2. To be buried in the parish churchyard, Henlow.
3. Bequests:

· to John Cowper his eldest son all the freehold land he bought from his brother Willyam Cowper in Arlesey. Plus other properties.
· to son Edmund property in Henlow, and farm gear, 6 years after his mother had them.
· to other sons Olyver, George, Richard, Robert, the last 3 when they reach 20.
· to daughters Agnes and Judith, both unmarried and under 18.
· to wife Elizabeth property.

4. Residue not mentioned.
5. Executors: “Elizabeth my said wief and my brother in Lawe Willyam Papworthe“.
6. Overseer: John Page Gent.
7. Witnesses: James Turner vicar of Henlow, Richard Emerie, Thomas Underwood, Henry Edwardes with others

Discussion:

How might Michell’s co-executor Willyam Papworthe have been his ‘brother in law’?

1. Willyam Papworthe here was doubtless the William whose Will was proved 1567. This William was legally of age by the time of the death of his father Edmund Papworth in 1540, so born at least by 1519, probably a good few years before. No further record has been found attributable to the William, brother of Edmund, since his mention in their father’s Will of 1520.

2. In 1556 Michell Cowper had 6 surviving sons and 2 daughters. The first 4 sons were bequeathed property, however the 4th, George, had first to reach 20 years. The last 2, Richard and Robert, were bequeathed £20, also when they reached 20. So in 1556 the eldest John must have been well into his 20s. Nevertheless, he was to “enter and have all the said Landes and goodes Immediatlye after my decease to fynde hym to Scoolle”. In this context this term clearly meant to provide for his higher education, perhaps at an Inn of Court or university. In other contexts the term could also mean primary education. John Cowper was one of the 10 jurors for the 1556 Hitchin manor court survey. But as for Michell and his wife, to have had 8 children, the first 3 aged 20 and over in 1556, means that they had been married by 1534 at the latest, and Elizabeth born by c 1516.

3. William Audley in his Will of 1591 made bequests to Richard Cowper, son of his sister Cooper and to the children of his sister Agnes.37 Similarly, Robert Papworth in his Will of 1620 made bequests to his sister Elizabeth Cooper and to John Williams and Anne Williams the children of his sister Agnes.

4. This William Audley and Robert Papworth were half-brothers and both called Elizabeth Cooper ‘sister’. They were both sons of Joan and her same-named husbands. Joan’s first husband had been Robert Papworth, brother of William (d 1566 and Michell Cowper’s co-executor). This Robert had died by 16 May 1547. Joan’s second husband, William Audley, died 1574. Joan herself died 1582, and in her Will made bequests—among others–to her daughters Elizabeth Cooper and Agnes Williams.

5. As calculated above, Elizabeth, the wife and co-executor of Michell Cowper (d 1556), would have been born at the latest c 1516, so she couldn’t have been the Elizabeth Cooper, daughter of Joan Audlye, and sister of Robert Papworth still alive in 1620. Rather, this later Elizabeth’s husband Cooper might have been the 2nd youngest son of Michell and Elizabeth [snr] Cowper of Henlow, and married her in Hitchin in 1573: “The same daie [18 Janurye 1572/3] were maried Richard Cooper & Elizabeh Awdly”.38 Cooper was a common name and although this connection looks likely, it’s not definite. The point here, however, is that Elizabeth Cooper, wife of Michell, wasn’t the Elizabeth Cooper, daughter of Joan Audlye.

6. Furthermore, William Papworth (d 1566 and Michell Cowper’s co-executor) appointed as his co-overseer “my brother in lawe William Cowpare of London”. Since Michell Cowper called William Papworth his brother-in-law and William Papworth called William Cowpar his brother-in-law, it looks likely that Michell and William Cowper were brothers and their sister married William Papworth. The fact that William Papworth called his other overseer George Underwoode “my sonne in lawe”, whom we know was his ‘son-in-law’ in today’s sense, makes it even more likely that the terms ‘brother-in-law’ used here by both Michell Cowper and William Papworth also meant what they do today.

7. The Elizabeth Cooper [junior] mentioned above—daughter of Joan Audlye and sister of Robert Papworth (d 1620) couldn’t also have been a sister of William Papworth of the previous generation (d 1566), as his sister Elizabeth had married John Monke by 1540, and bore him 7 children.

8. We come to the conclusion that William Papworth (d 1576 and Michell Cowper’s co-executor) was married to a sister of Michell and William Cowper. In his Will William Papworth (d 1576) mentioned his wife Letice. We suggest therefore that she was Letice Cowper.

9. With the evidence thus far we can construct the following chart: [To follow]

10. This Cowper family was researched by Ward in 1985, and his findings confirmed that Letice was a sister of Michell and William and that their father was Michael Cowper of Henlow, died 1540, a well-to-do Yeoman, and his father was John Cooper of Arlesey, died 1501 or 2, as follows:

1540: Will of Michael Cowper of Henlow, written 9 Feb 1539/40.39 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Margret, deceased.
2. To be buried in Henlow churchyard beside his wife Margret.
3. Bequests:

· to sons Michael, William (under age), Edmund, and Walter, and daughters Mary, Lettes, and (under age) Elizabeth, Alice, Barbara, and Winifred.
· to daughters Mare and Lettes to have £10 each in ready money at Michaelmas next, to be paid out of the profit arising from the sale of the wool from testator’s sheep, and from the money which son Michael has in hand. Daughters Mare and Lettes to have 40 sheep and 20 lambs each, which are to be handed over as soon as they have been shorn. Also each to have a milch cow and a bullock.
· to daughter Lettes testator’s wife’s best gown, and to daughter Mare the second gown. To testator’s sister Emery his wife’s third gown.
· to various others, including brother-in-law Edmund Emerre, and servants.

4. Residue equally between his children, especially among the youngest for their bringing up.
5. Executors: Son Michael Cowper and brother-in-law Edmund Emery.
6. Overseers: None.
7. Witnesses: Symon Tayler his ghostly father, Edmund Emmery, Robert Oste, Alys wife of Richard Fyssher of Clyfton, Lettes Cowper, with others.

Discussion:
1. Mare and Lettes were the oldest unmarried daughters, come of age but unmarried in 1540. One daughter was married to Edmund Emmery. Daughters Elzabeth, Alys and Barbery were not yet of age in 1540, and daughter Wenofred was probably an infant, since she had a nurse. Lettes may have been the oldest daughter, since she was left Michael’s wife’s best gown, and Mare the second gown and sister Emery the third. Be that as it may, Lettes also appears to have been one of the witnesses to the Will; no others of her name are recorded on Ward’s ‘Tree of Cowper of Arlesey and Henlow’.40

2. Ward cited the following deeds and charters to show that the father of this elder Michael (d 1540) was John Cooper:41

· Michael Cooper owned a parcel of land called “Hoyes mese” in Arlesey which had been quitclaimed to him by his brother Thomas Cooper of Arlesey, yeoman, on 3 October 1514. The charter refers to Thomas as son and heir of John Cowper, lately deceased, and to Michael as second son of John.

Ward concluded that Michael’s father John was the John Cooper of Arlesey, Bedfordshire, whose Will, written 21 Jul 1501, mentioned wife Joan and son Thomas as executors, and John Fyssher supervisor.42

3. Ward previously cited the following 4 deeds and charters to prove the connection between the younger Michael (d 1556) and the elder Michael (d 1540):43

1. Michael Cooper of Henlow, Yeoman, bought a close called “le Rose-wyke” in Arlesey from John Lorynge of Arlesey 16 February 1552/3.
2. This parcel had previously been held jointly by William Lorynge (father of John), Nicholas Wylbon, and Michael Cooper (father of Michael), who had bought it from William Abbot of Woburn Chapel, co. Bedford on 10 October 1509.
3. Michael Cooper of Arlesey, gent., purchased a message in an Arlesey called “Poyntelles” from Jasper Smyth of Hitchin. co. Hertford for £85 on 19 April 1556.
4. This tract had been owned by the father and grandfather of the seller, both named John Smith. John Cooper, son of the younger Michael Cooper, sold both tracts to John Luke of Cople, co. Bedford on 17 July 1565.

1557: Will of William Hubbard of Hitchin, Yeoman, written 12 May 1557.44 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in Hitchin Parish Church.
3. Bequests:

· to John Papworthe “my blake gowne and my marbell coate gardid with velvytte”.
· to brother John and sister and their children.
· to daughter Elizabeth “all my lands and tenements with thappurtenaunces lying in the parishis of Benyngtone and Walcorne” when she marries or reaches lawful age, plus other bequests.
· to various others.

4. Residue to wife Alice.
5. Executors: Brother John Hubberd and brother-in-law William Hawis.
6. Overseers: Wife Alice and Thomas Parishe gentleman.
7. Witnesses: Thomas Kent, Simon Waren, Thomas Chamber, Thomas Humberstone, with others.

Discussion:
1. The bequest to John Papworthe suggests he was a friend of William Hubbard. For other records of John, see here.

1558-1603: Pleadings. Plaintiff: William Papworth. Defendant: Thomas Burman. Subject: To protect mortgage. A parcel of land in the parish of Hitchin, Hertfordshire conveyed by defendant Thomas Burman to plaintiff William Papworth in fee, by way of mortgage.45 Comment: The date range in the catalogue is wide, so it could refer to either William Papworth (d 1566) or the later William recorded in the two Burman/Papworth records of 1599 and 1601 below. No other William Papworths of Hitchin are known 1558-1599.

1558: Will of Elizabeth Fryday, Widow, written 14 Aug 1558.46 Summary of the Will:

1. Widow, former husband’s name not mentioned.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin “nyghe to my husbonde”.
3. Bequests:

· to “Thomas Graveley my tenement that William Yelborne to dwell in in Hichyne nexte to William Awdleye”.
· to “John Graveleye my tenement that I do dwell in in Hichyne … with all other lands fre and copie and dooles”.
· to Joone Olivere £20 and other items.
· to Elizabeth Olivere £6 13s 4d at marriage or 20 years of age, and other items.
· Items or money to Elizabeth Raven, Mastris Anne Luke, Thomas Graveley, Elsabeth Graveley, George Graveley, Elsabeth Trustram, Luce Slowe, William Awdleye.
· “I will that Thomas Graveleye shall sett of £5 to John Graveley of his grantfathers will in consideracion of that I have gevene a housse that my husbonde bought of Thomas Perryshe”.

4. Residue to Executor.
5. Executor: John Graveleye.
6. Overseers: Laurence Trustram and John Papworth.
7. Witnesses: William Awdley, John Reve, Robert Papworth, William Henshewe, John Parrishe, Hughe Masere, with others.

Discussion:
1. That Elizabeth bequeathed all her real estate to Thomas and John Graveley and appointed the latter her sole executor, suggests that one or both of Thomas and John were Elizabeth’s brothers and she was born a Graveley. This is further supported by her reference to their grandfather in her Will. In his Will of 1532, George Graveley left his real estate to his sons Thomas and John, perhaps the same two mentioned here by Elizabeth in her Will. George mentioned a daughter Johane, but not Elizabeth, however. George also called John Fridaye his father-in-law, probably meaning that George’s wife Agnes was formerly a Fryday. So perhaps Elizabeth’s relationship to the Graveleys was through her husband.

2. Joone Olivere and Thomas and John Graveley were also left bequests by Robert Snedalle in 1545, whose Will shows that Joan Olivere—or at least her mother—was a Graveley.

3. For other records of John Papworth, see here, and for Robert here.

1558: Will of John Monke of Hitchin, Draper, written 6 Oct 1558.47 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Elizabeth, deceased.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin.
3. Bequests:

· to son William John’s family house in Bancroft street.
· to executor the profits of the house to the use of son William “till my sonne cumys to the age of 21 yeres”.
· to son Raffe and daughters Letice, Elene, Joone, Agnes, Elizabeth and Alice, items of personal estate.
· No bequests to anyone else, except if all his children should die before marriage or lawful age then he willed all the goods and lands to remain to the children of William Papworth.

4. Residue to “my childrene which I had by Elizabethe my wiff”.
5. Executor: “William Papworth my brother”.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Thomas Kent, Richard Baldocke, Richarde Chamber, John Gaddisden, John Dardes, with others.

Discussion:
1. John clearly had a very close relationship to his ‘brother’ William Papworth. William was in fact John’s wife’s brother, his brother-in-law.

2. John’s wife Elizabeth had died by Oct 1558. John mentioned “my doughteres that I had by Elizabeth late my wiff”. She was a daughter of Edmund Papworth, d 1540.

3. Son William was under 21, therefore born after Oct 1537.

4. It appears by the way John referred thrice to “my childrene which I had by Elizabethe my wiff”, and Elizabeth’s mother referred to “the 7 childrene of John Moonke which he hade by my doughter Elizabeth his wiff” that Elizabeth may not have been John’s first wife. John mentioned sons William and Raffe before “my doughteres that I had by Elizabeth late my wiff”, six in order: Letice, Elene, Joone, Agnes, Elizabeth and Alice. Mentioning the sons first may simply have been because they were bequeathed real estate, but since Elizabeth’s mother referred in 1560 to 7 children, unless one had died in the meantime, it appears that one of the sons, presumably the eldest William, may have been from a former wife of John. John and Elizabeth, however, were married by Nov 1540 (her father’s Will), so perhaps John also fathered an illegitimate child or children.

1558: Will of Thomas Kent of Hitchin, Yeoman, written 14 Oct 1558.48 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
3. Bequests:

· “unto Ales my wif one hunderith pounds which she brought unto me at the daye of her mariage and one hunderith pounde which I do give her as yt will appeare by one paier of Indentures of Covenauntes betwene us / Iteme I gyve unto the saied Alice my wif bothe my Ferme of Hendloo and the parsonage to the same Ferme which Thomas Farr dwellethe in for terme of her lif / And also I gyve unto my saied wif all suche goodes and Catalle as she broughte unto me at the day of mariage”
· “unto John Kent my sonne all my copye lande lying and being within the filds and paryshe of Hendloo in the Countie of Bedford to hyme and to his heires for ever after the custome and manner of the same lordshipp / Iteme I give unto my saied sonne John Kent one pece of Copylande called Bentchloo pece and alle the other arrable land therunto belonging / lying and being within the Feilds and parrysh of Hytchyne”.
· “unto my sonne John Kent the reversion of my Ferme and personage of Hendlowe after the deceasse of Alice my wif”.

4. Residue to “my childerne thene being alyve to be equally parted and devyded betwene theyme”.
5. Executor: son John.
6. Overseer: Edward Hurst.
7. Witnesses: John Gaddesden / Rauf Myddelton and Thomas Serle with others.

Discussion:
1. Clearly, Alice wasn’t Thomas’ first wife, and he was Alice’s second husband.

2. Hendloo was presumably Henlow, c 6 miles N of Hitchin.

3. The Hitchin Manorial Survey of 1556 recorded Thomas holding several freehold and copyhold properties.

1559 7 Jun: Indenture to lead to uses of a recovery. John Gravelye of Hitchin to William Kent and John Papworth to use of Joan Tristam. Messuage with appurtenances etc, formerly of Elizabeth Fryday. Witnesses: Wm. Audeley, John Perles, Jemeys [James] Shave, Thomas Shepherd.49

1559: Will of John Lucas of Hitchin, Maltman, written 10 Sep 1559.50 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of “wiff latelie decessde”, unnamed.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin.
3. Bequests:

· to sons Richard and John his real estate.
· to daughters Amye, Elsabeth and Mary £6 13s 4d each.
· to Avis Drapere, daughter of Robert Drapere £5.

4. Residue to “geve towards the brynging up of my childrene”.
5. Executors: Richarde Lucas, John Papworthe and Thomas Frenche.
6. Overseer: George Laurence.
7. Witnesses: John Makinge, Gilbert Colyne, Richard Astone, Joone Laurence, Elizabeth Chamberleyne, Raffe Myles, with others.

Discussion:
1. For other mentions of John Papworthe, see here.

1559: William Papworth was mentioned in a Maydencroft Manor Court hearing of 1571 regarding a case of fraud. A conversation with William soon after Ralph Radcliffe’s death in 1559 was recounted by Ralph’s widow:51+Read more

1560: Will of Alice Kent Widow of Hitchin the late wife of Thomas Kent deceased, written 12 Feb 1559/60.52+Read more

Summary of the Will:

1. Late wife of Thomas Kent deceased, previously wife of Edmunde Papworthe deceased.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin, at the West door near to my husband Edmund Papworthe deceased.
3. Bequests:

· to the 7 children of John Moonke which he had by my daughter Elizabeth his wife £7 6s 8d each when they reach 21 years. If any die beforehand then their share to remain to William Papworthe’s children.
· to Alice Papworthe the daughter of William Papworth my son £13 6s 8d when she comes to lawful age.
· to John Monke a fetherbede a payne payre of sheates a bolstare a cople of pillowebeares
· to Robert Papworth my son’s son a silver spoon.
.

4. Residue to son William.
5. Executor: Son William.
6. Overseer: John Papworth my brother.
7. Witnesses: Raffe Myddilton, Thomas Robbison, John Hicchynson, John Gaddisden, John Papworth, Richard Blocke, with others.

Discussion:
1. Her husband Thomas Kent’s Will was proved 7 May 1559. Alice’s burial wish shows that her first husband was Edmund Papworthe, whose Will was proved 11 Mar 1541. This is confirmed by her bequests to her children, also mentioned by Edmund in his Will.

2. Alice mentioned only 2 of her children: Elizabeth and William. Elizabeth, wife of John Monke, had died but William was still alive. He died 1566. Alice’s grandson Robert Papworth (d 1620) was son of her son Robert who had died 1546-7. She didn’t mention her other known children Alice and James, who were both alive 1540, but may have died by this time.

3. Alice’s bequest to her grand daughter Alice Papworthe, daughter of her son William, is the only named reference to her before the Will of her husband William Brokett of Hitchin, written 4 Sep 1563. In his Will William Brokett appointed Alice his wife executrix and “my Father in lawe William Papwurthe” co-overseer. This means that William Brokett and Alice Papwurthe married between the writing of the Wills of Alice Kent and William Brokett, that is between 12 Feb 1560 and 4 Sep 1563. We know they had two sons, the second baptized 28 Nov 1562, so they must have married between 12 Feb 1560 and at the latest mid 1561. In 1546, 14 years before Alice Kent’s Will, William Audeley had bequeathed 10s to each of the [unnamed] “2 doughters of William Papworth”, providing a latest birth date of early 1546 for the younger of those two. One of them must have been Alice, presumably born by 1544 at the latest—it’s unlikely she would have married under 16.

4. Alice Kent’s ‘brother’, her overseer John Papworth, was her brother-in-law—the brother of Edmund Papworth, Alice’s first husband. For a discussion, see here. Alice left 3s 4d “to all his childrene”.

5. In 1565 Alice’s son William Papworth made bequests to 3 of his own sons: Edmunde, Michill and John—the last two under 21—and to 3 daughters, all unmarried and under 20: Agnes, Martha, Elizabethe. But of all these children of William—most of whom will have been alive in 1560—Alice Kent only mentioned Alice, and made her a larger bequest than to the children of her deceased daughter Elizabeth. One could speculate that Alice Kent may have wished to leave her grand daughter Alice a sizeable bequest because of her impending marriage to William Brokett.

6. John Gaddesden and Rauf Myddelton had also witnessed her husband Thomas Kent’s Will.

1560: Will of Leonard Daye of Hitchin, written 12 Mar 1559/60 (2 Eliz).53 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Jone.
2. “my boddie be buried in Cristen buriall”.
3. Bequests:

· 4 copyholds in Hitchin that he had meanwhile surrendered into the hands of William Papworth to pay the lord the rent, one to William Wallen, two to his son Leonard, and one to his wife for life with remainder to son Leonard.
· to son Leonard 2 copyhold tenements in Stevenage.
· “to Griffin Fuller my fryse gowne, to William Daye my gowne faced with blacke lambe”, to Ellen Burr my sister 20s.
· to wife for life the house he dwells in and garden in the churchyard, with remainder to son Leonard.
· to son Leonard the house John Papworth dwells in and the two houses in Bucklersbury and the stall in the market place, when he reaches 21.
· Should both his sons die before reaching 21 then all the lands were to be sold and half the proceeds to be given to the poor of Hitchin and half to be divided equally amongst the children of James Prate and Thomas Prate, Andrew Prate, Ellen Burre, Alice Duckington, Burre’s wife of Brachewode green, Margaret Hewarde of Aston, and Agnes his sister.
· to John Papworth my violet cote and my fryse Coete.

4. Residue to wife Jone.
5. Executrix: Wife Jone.
6. Overseer: “my brother William Papworth“.
7. Witnesses: William Wallen, Griffith Fuller, William Papworth, Richard Braunsawe, John Papworth, Richard Page with others.

Discussion:
1. The term ‘brother’ for William Papworth obviously didn’t mean sibling, but either a brother-in-law or some other relationship. William is only known to have had 2 sisters, Elizabeth who married John Mounke, and Alice probably died 1540-60. William’s wife was formerly a Cowper, so perhaps a sister of Leonard Daye married a brother of hers. Perhaps one of Leonard’s parents married a sibling of William’s parents. Tracing Leonard Daye’s family might elucidate.
2. Leonard had two sons, both under 21, but named only Leonard.
3. The John Papworth who bequeathed 2 coats, lived in house owned by Leonard, and was a witness, were presumably one and the same man. For other records of John Papworth, see here.

1560: Will of Rawff Audlye of Hitchin Shoemaker, written 10 Sep 1560.54 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Joane.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin.
3. Bequests:

· to 3 servants.

4. Residue to wife Joane.
5. Executrix: Wife Joane.
6. Overseer: Wylliam Papworth.
7. Witnesses: Richard Chamber, John Gaddysden. with others.

Discussion:
1. The Wylliam Papworth Rawff appointed as Overseer was doubtless William who died 1566.
2. Reade made no definite connection between him and other Audleys.55

1562: William Papworthe, John Lawman, Richarde Feryane, with others, were witnesses to the Will of Nicholas Glasscote of Walsworth, Hitchin, Husbandman, written 13 Jun 1562.56 Bequests to wife, brother, mother, son and daughter—no obvious connection to Papworths.

1562: William Papworth purchased a messuage and land in Chalton in the parish of Hytchin from Geo. Frauncys and Eliz. his wife, John Slowe and Joan his wife, Jas. Cawdwell and Alice his wife, John Hawkyns and Agnes his wife and Mercy Wakeffelde.57

1565: Will of William Papworthe of Hitchin, Yeoman, written 10 Feb 1564/5, proved 23 Jan 1567/8.58+Read more


Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Letice.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin.
3. Bequests:

· to his wife Letice the family home in Hitchin and the house at Charleton with various freehold and copyhold lands until their sons reached 21 and so long as she didn’t remarry.
· Letice to pay legacies given to the children of John Munke according to the Wills of John Munke and of Alice Kente the grandmother.
· to son Edmunde during Letice’s widowhood “the howsse that I dwell in in Hychyne with my orchyarde and gardyne and 6 acris of lande with longe hedge and 5 acrys lande at Chaulledell and 7 acrys weate and xiii acrys lyinge and beynge within the feldes and parisshis of hichyne”.
· to son Michill “my howsse at Charlton and all the copie lande that I dide purches and bye of Laurence Wakefelde whiche I doo holde of the manere of Temple and mayden crosse. Also one cloose of 3 acrys which was of the bull lande and 2 acrys of fre lande which was purchaside of Edwarde Masshe.”
· to son John “38 acrys of copie lande and 4 acris 1 rood of fre lande which I dide purchase of John Gaddisden lyinge and beinge within the feldes and parissh of Hichyne.”
· to each of his 3 unmarried daughters under 20: Agnes, Martha and Elizabethe £20 and 2 silver spoons.
· to William Gaddisden one ewe lamb, and to each of his 2 men servants and maidservants 2 ewe lambs.
· to William Brockette and Edwarde Brokett each 20s when the yreach 21.

4. Residue to wife Letice.
5. Executrix: Wife Letice.
6. Overseers: “my brother in lawe William Cowpare of Londone and George Underwoode my sonne in lawe”.
7. Witnesses: William Awdeley, John Trustram the eldere, John Papworthe the eldere, Cuthberte Raven, Clement Athertone, John Gaddisden, Roberte Harteryde, with others.

Discussion:,
1. The Hitchin Parish Register recorded the burial of a William Papworth on 23 Jun 1566, the same day Edward Townesend was baptized:59

William Papworth buried Hitchin 1566

It must have been the burial of the William of this 1565 Will, written and proved shortly before and after the burial—10 Feb 1564/5 and 23 Jan 1567/8. After the single record in 1520 of the William Papworth son of William (d 1520) the 1540 record of the William Papworth son of Edmunde (d 1540) was the next William Papworth recorded in Hitchin. Thereafter, this later William was mentioned regularly through the 1540s, 50s and early 60s, and was clearly a prominent member of the Hitchin community. He is recorded in many Wills as legatee, executor, overseer or witness, and in land records like the Hitchin Manorial Survey of 1556, for which he was one of the jurors. Had there been two adult William Papworths in Hitchin during this time, some method of distinguishing them would have been used. But the records are all of William Papworth, undifferentiated.

2. When was William born? The first record found of him is in his father Edmund’s Will of 1540, when he was the first named of 5 children, three of them sons all of an age to inherit land. William was therefore well into his 20s in 1540, and born by 1515 at the latest. Working back from his own children later, we know from a bequest of Nov 1545 that William and his wife had 2 children by then. In another bequest of 1546, where they were referred to as two daughters. One of those two must have been Alice, who 14 years later, in her grandmother Alice Kent’s Will of Feb 1560 was still not of ‘lawful age’, but who went on to marry by mid 1561 at the latest. Her grandmother perhaps singled Alice out specifically for a bequest because of her impending marriage to William Brokett. Assuming Alice was 16 at marriage, she would have been born by mid 1545 at the latest, especially if she was the elder of the 2 daughters. By these calculations William must have married her mother Letice by mid to late 1544. Brides were often pregnant walking down the aisle. The estimated average age of 26½ at first marriage for a male in the 2nd half of the 16th C would place his birth around 1517, and assuming he was a couple of years over the average, a 1515 birth for William is possible, as suggested above.60

3. The Will shows that William’s wife was called Letice, and we can deduce from a Will of 1556 that she had been born a Cowper. In her father’s Will of Feb 1540 Lettis had come of age but was still unmarried. So they would have married between early 1540 and mid 1544, as just suggested above. William left her the family home in Hitchin and the house at Charleton with other lands so long as she stayed unmarried and until their sons reached 21. She didn’t apparently marry again. After William’s death, Leticia Papworthe, Widow, was assessed in 1557 at 6s for £6 in goods:61

Leticia Papworth tax 1567

She was assessed again likewise in 1576, but not in 1588. The Hitchin Parish Register recorded the burial of Lettis Papworth on 11 Jul 1592, which was probably her.

4. William’s 3 sons—Edmund, Michael and John—were all under 21 in 1565, so born after 1544. All 3 daughters mentioned—Agnes, Martha and Elizabethe—were under 20, so born after 1545. These couldn’t therefore have been the daughters mentioned in the 1545 bequest, one of whom must have been Alice, as discussed above. Perhaps the other died before 1565.

5. William left son Edmunde the family home in Hitchin and the orchard and garden his own father had left him, plus other land in Chaulledell and Hitchin, but not during Letice’s widowhood, she paying him instead 40s annually once he reached 21. Edmund, who later lived in Charleton, apparently passed most of this property on to his wife Elizabeth and elder son William in his own Will of 1607, but apart from the orchard they were specified by the current tenants rather than their locations.

Comment: Chaulledell was the Chalk Dell, “a communal chalk pit which all the tenants of the manor could use. It has now been filled in and forms an open grassy area on Oughtonhead Way near the junction with Victoria Road.”62

6. William left son Michill his house at Charlton, all his copyhold land in the manors of Temple Dinsley and Maydencroft, plus 5 other acres, of which 3 were “of the bull lande”.

Comment: The manors of Temple Dinsley and Maydencroft were in Ippollitts parish. “I think that the Bull land must have one time been the holding associated with the house called The Bull which was on the corner of Bridge Street and Queen Street (now demolished).63 Son Michill was later no doubt the head of the only Michael Papworth household recorded in the Hitchin Parish Register 1586-1604. There was a high infant mortality rate in the household, but son Christopher and 3 daughters survived to adulthood and married. Michael’s wife Jane died 1615, and Michael was buried 22 Nov 1624. The 1624 Will of Michaell Papworth of Chaulton, Yeoman, was proved 22 Dec 1624 by son Christopher.

7. William left son John 38 acres of copyhold land and 4 acres 1 rood freehold in Hitchin. Was he the John who was buried 12 Feb 1584? The 1600 Will of John Papworth of Preston was of a different John.

8. John Munke’s children were the children of William’s deceased sister Elizabeth, and Alice Kent was their grandmother, and William and Elizabeth’s mother.

9. One of William’s overseers, his “brother in law William Cowpare of Londone” was the brother of Michell Cowper of Henlow (d 1556) “brother in Lawe [of] Willyam Papworthe”.

10. William’s other overseer was “sonne in law” George Underwood. George was a well-to-do Yeoman from Weston, a village and parish c 5 m E of Hitchin. As discussed above, one of William’s daughters, probably the eldest, was Alice. She went unmentioned in his Will, but not her husband nor her two sons by her former husband. This Alice had married firstly William Brokett of Hitchin with whom she had two sons William and Edwarde—each left 20s here by William Papworth—and secondly on 21 Nov 1563 this George Underwood of Weston:64

Alice Broket m 1563 Hitchin

The couple went on to have 10 children, the first baptized 1 Apr 1565 in Hitchin, and the others in Weston.

11. The epithet ‘the elder’ for the witness John Papworthe would have distinguished him from William’s own son John. Was he the brother of Edmund (d 1540), overseer of Alice Kent’s Will of 1560?

12. This, along with previous evidence gives rise to the following chart: [To follow]

1566: Robert Papworth sold a messuage in Hitchyn to Anthony Stibbynge gent, and Wm. Awdeley.65

1566: John and Elizabeth Papworth his wife and Tho. Graveley and Joan his wife sold two messuages in Hitcham [sic] to Rich. Cowper.66

2. Hitchin Papworth Tax records to 1567

These records are not systematic. Subsidies weren’t raised at regular intervals, but if and when the King needed funds for a particular purpose, like waging war. Each subsidy was different and aimed at different levels of wealth, and individuals would naturally try to minimise their assessments or evade tax altogether. Furthermore, some returns have since been lost and others damaged. The 1524 subsidy, for instance, targeted a much larger constituency than later ones, and the Hitchin return recorded hundreds of names in small writing on two sides of a large parchment, but parts of it are now faded and damaged and illegible. No Papworths have been found in the legible parts, but that can’t be taken to mean that none were assessed in Hitchin in 1524.

Nonetheless, where they exist and are legible, tax records are valuable snapshots of a person’s declared wealth in time, and indeed of whole communities, and can be additional evidence for individuals, as here with the Papworths. If a woman was recorded, she would have been a Widow, mostly designated as such. With men the returns for Hitchin and Hertfordshire usually indicated if he was a Knight or an Esquire, but not a Gentleman or a Yeoman. This is a pity for the Papworths, as it would have been useful to know if a certain William or Robert, for instance, was a Gentleman or not. Finally, an individual was normally assessed at their place of highest value rather than simply their place of residence. The two would normally have been the same. but this means that because someone was assessed in Hitchin it doesn’t necessarily mean they lived there, and conversely if they were assessed elsewhere it doesn’t mean they didn’t often live in Hitchin.

After the 1524-5 subsidies the next were not till the 1540s. They show 1 household in 1541, 1 in 1545, 1 in 1545-52, 3 in 1556 and 3 in 1557:

1541: Alice Papworth Widow was assessed at 10s for £20 in goods.67 Comment: Alice was no doubt the mother of William Papworth assessed in 1545-52, and Widow of Edmund (d 1540).
1545: William Papworthe was assessed at 3s 4d.68
1546: No Papworths were among the 27 assessed.69
1549-52: William Papworthe was assessed at 15s for £15 in goods.70
1556: Survey of the manor of Hitchin 1556+Read more


1567: James Papworthe was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.78
1567: John Papworthe was assessed at 16d for 20s in land.79
1567: Leticia Papworthe Widow was assessed at 6s for £6 in goods.80 Comment: The subsidy was granted by Parliament 18 Dec 1566 and the assessment carried out Feb 23 1567. Husband William had been buried 23 Jun 1566.

Hitchin Parish Registers to 1567

The earliest Hitchin Parish Record dates from 156281 and within 25 years 5 marriages, 11 baptisms and 3 burials were recorded. The entries point to at least 5 Papworth households in mid 16th C Hitchin.82+Read more


Conclusions: [To follow]

Hitchin Papworths 1568-99

1. Wills and other records
2. Tax records to 1599
3. Parish Registers to 1599

1. Wills and other records 1568-99

Following are the Papworth records 1568-99 for Hitchin (and Ippollitts) gathered from various sources:+Read more

1574: Will of William Audley of Hitchin, written 10 Sep 1574.87 “Januarye 1574/5 The 20 daye was buried William Awdlye”.88 William was with little doubt the defendant in a 1544 suit and was the only son of William (d 1547) and the 2nd husband of Joan Audlye (d 1582), whose first husband was Robert Papworth (d by 1547).

1581: Will of Stephen Foxe of Hitchin, Gent, written 2 Aug 1582 [?].89 Bequest to “to John Papworth my second gowne”.

1582: Will of Joan Audlye of Hitchin, Widow, written 14 Mar 1581/2.90 Summary of the Will:91

1. Widow first of Robert Papworth (d by 1546) and second William Audelye (d 1574).
2. To be buried in Hitchin Churchyard.
3. Bequests: Joan made bequests to the following children in the following order:

· to daughter Joan Audlye many household and clothing items and 20s a year for 10 years “oute of those landes which herevnder I haue geuen & bequethed to William my sonne”.
· to son John Audlye (under 22) various household items and animals and “one longe table & frame that standeth at the signe of the Cocke in Hitchin”, some unspecified land, and King’s Pound Close once aged 22.
· to daughter Agnes Williams, and her children James and Joan.
· to daughter Elizabeth Cooper and her children.
· to son Robert Papworth £6 13 4d, and children 10s each, and to his son William a coffer. Robert was also to have King’s Pound Close until son John’s age of 22.
· to son William Audlye “the lands bought by my last husband William Audlye and me of James Tidye of Dunstable”, and land in Chorlton Hitchin.

4. Residue to Son William Audlye.
5. Executor: Son William Audlye.
6. Overseers: Son Robert Papworth and friend Mr Thomas Parrys.
7. Witnesses: Thomas Parrys, Michell Longe, Thomas Saye publc notary, Richard Cooper, William Audlye, John Audlye and Robert Venables, with others.

Discussion:
1. Joan Audlye’s Will makes it clear that her last husband, the father of their son William, had been William Audelye, who had died 1574. The 1591 Will of their son William Awdely of Warden, Bedfordshire,92 left bequests to sisters Agnes, Elizabeth Cooper and Joane and their children, and to “Richard Cowper sonne of my sister Cooper”. Both Agnes [Williams] and Elizabeth were mentioned here as Joan’s daughters in her Will.

2. Joan’s Will also proves that her son Robert Papworth was son of Robert (d by 1546-7) son of Edmund (d 1540). According to her Will, Joan’s son Robert was father of William Papworth and her daughters were Agnes Williams and Elizabeth Cooper. Robert Papworth’s Will of 1620 mentioned his son William, his sister Elizabeth Cooper, and John Williams and Anne Williams the children of his sister Agnes deceased. A Chancery suit dated 1544-7 showed that Joan’s first husband had been Robert Papworth deceased, and he was a son of Edmund (d 1540).

3. William and Joan Audley’s son John was under 22. His son Hugh Awdley was plaintiff in a 1603-25 claim against William Papworth and others “under the will of the deceased Joan, the plaintiff’s grandmother to messuages, etc near Hitchin.93

4. As noted above, both Joan’s son William Audeley and his half-brother Robert Papworth in their Wills had referred to “sisters” Cooper and Agnes. So whether they were children of Joan’s first or second marriage is unclear. Reade wasn’t aware of Robert Papworth’s Will of 1620 and assigned both sisters as daughters of Joan and William Audeley rather than of her previous husband Robert Papworth. The relevance here concerns the term ‘sister’ and that each referred to their sisters Cooper and Agnes whether they were half or step sisters.

5. Joan’s daughter Elizabeth’s husband Cooper could have been the 2nd youngest son of Michell Cowper of Henlow, Bedfordshire, who died 1556. The Elizabeth Awdly who married Richard Cooper was no doubt her: “The same daie [18 Janurye 1572/3] were maried Richard Cooper & Elizabeth Awdly”.94 Both Joan’s sons Robert Papworth and William Audeley referred to her as ‘sister’, so Elizabeth may have been daughter of either of Joan’s husbands. That she married as Awdly may only have been because her mother married again when she was a child and she took on the Audley name.

6. Overseers: son Robert Papworth and Mr Thomas Parrys. The latter is unlikely to have been the Thomas Parrys appointed overseer of the Will of Joan’s father-in-law William Audeley in 1546, 36 years previously.

7. The details above enables the following chart to be drawn: [To follow]

1584 8 Oct: Copy of court roll quotes (1) Surrender of Thomas Frydaye to use of Edmund Papworthe: (2) Surrender of John Dardes to use of Robert Papworthe; (3) Surrender of Thomas Parris to use of Robert Papworthe. (4) admission of Robert Papworth junior. (1) 14 acres called Wyllinghams; (2) 14 acres called Willingehams next the Malt mill pond; (3) Croft next the Malt mill and 14 acres.95

1593: Will of John Bowyer of Hitchin Esq, written 25 Apr 1593.96 Supervisors: “me vere good frendes Mr George Crowder & Mr Thomas Lyllyngtone & my sonne in lawe Robert Papworthe of Hitchyn”.

1599 22 Apr: Feoffment: Thomas Burman of Bassingbourn, gent., to Robert Papworth of Hitchin, and William Papworth 6 acres of arable land in Hitchin, in Haye field, and More mead field. (abuttals given). Witnesses: John Pearles, Tho. Gaddesden.97 See also the 1558-1603 and 1601 records.

2. Hitchin Tax records 1568-99

The following show 2 households in Hitchin in 1571-72, 3 in 1576, 4 in 1588 and 3 in 1598-9. There may of course have been others that didn’t reach the thresholds. The 1591 Rental was only of the Manor of Hitchin.

157198
James Papworth was assessed at 5s 4d for 40s in land.
Letice Papworthe was assessed at [10s] for £6 in goods.

157299
James Papworth was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
Letice Papworthe was assessed at [6s for £6] in goods.

1576100
Robert Papworthe was assessed at 5s for 40s in goods.
Letice Papworthe was assessed at [illegible] for £6 in goods.
James Papworthe was assessed at 5s 4d for 40s in land.

1588101
James Papworthe was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
Michaell Papworthe was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
Edward Papworthe was assessed at 6s for £6 in goods.
Robert Papworthe was assessed at 3s for 40s in goods.

1591: Rental of the Manor of Hitchin:102+Read more


1598-9109
Winefrid Papworth Widow was assessed at 8s for 40s in land.
Michael Papworth was assessed at 8s for 40s in land.
Robert Papworthe was assessed at 13s 4d for 100s in goods.

1598 Ippollitts
Edward Papworthe was assessed at 4s for 20s in land in Ippollitts.110 He was not assessed there in the other subsidy in 1598 nor in 1599.111

3. Hitchin Parish Registers 1568-99

These show nnn households in Hitchin in 1567 and nnn by 1599.112+Read more


Conclusions: [To follow]

17th C Hitchin and Ippollitts Papworths

1. Hitchin and Ippollitts Wills, tax and other records 1600-50
2. Hitchin Parish Registers 1600-50
3. Ippollitts Parish Registers 1600-1710

1. Hitchin and Ippollitts Wills, tax and other records 1600-50

A Papworth branch lived at this period in the hamlet of Charlton, or Chalton, some as Millers. It had become anciently separate from Hitchin when Charlton Mill was granted to the Knights Templars c 1140 along with part of the manor of Dinsley.113 Dinsley was in the parish of St Ippollitts, thus Charlton was too. It stands on the River Hiz scarcely a mile SW of Hitchin centre and is at the end of a narrow tongue of land extending west from Ippollitts into Hitchin parish, and thus surrounded on three sides by Hitchin. Many Papworths of Charlton, although parishioners of Ippollitts were baptised and buried in the nearer Hitchin Parish Church rather than Ippollitts Church. Papworth records also refer to Charlton as both in the parish of Hitchin and St Ippollitts. Conversely, Papworth records concerning Preston, a hamlet in Hitchin Parish, can refer to it as in the Parish of Ippollitts.

Surviving subsidy records show 4 households in Hitchin in 1608 and 2 in 1628, and one in Ippollitts in 1608:114

1600: Will of John Papworth of Preston, Hitchin, written 26 Nov 1600.115 Summary of the Will:

1. Apparently unmarried—no mention of wife or children.
2. To be buried in Hitchin Parish Churchyard.
3. Bequests:

· Many small bequests of money and other items to individuals, including to the 4 unmarried daughters of deceased brother Jaymes Pappeworthe: Letice, Elizabeth, Anne, and Alice (also his god daughter).

4. Residue to the same Letice, Elizabeth, Anne, and Alice Pappeworthe.
5. Executor: “Thomas Pappeworthe my brother”.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: John Stratton vicar of Ippollettes, Edward Lawrence, George Dawlton, John Buckingham.

Discussion:
1. Relationship to other Papworths to follow.
2. He mentioned no property.
3. His brother James had died, and brother Thomas died 1604
4. The same 4 daughters of deceased brother Jaymes were still unmarried in 1604.

1604: Will of Thomas Papworthe of Hitchin, Tilemaker, written 20 Apr 1604.116 Summary of the Will:

1. Apparently unmarried—no mention of wife or children.
2. To be buried in Christian burial.
3. Bequests:

· to brother James Papworth’s son Thomas the house in Hitchin, the house in Preston, the orchard, the pond next to the butcher, a pit by the pond, three half acres of land abutting Dead Woman Lane in High Field, and one acre in Chalgrave Field.
· An acre of wheat each to to Letice, Elizabeth, Agnes, and Alice Papworthe.
· to Bridgett Kent 4 bushels of wheat
· to tenant Agnes Field 10s.

4. Residue not mentioned.
5. Executor: Brother James Papworth’s son Thomas.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Symon Browne, Agnes Fielde and John Sergent.

Discussion:
1. Relationship to other Papworths to follow.
2. Inventory valued at £5 4s 6d.
3. Letice, Elizabeth, Agnes and Alice Papworthe had been mentioned by John, Thomas’ brother, in 1600 as the 4 unmarried daughters of deceased brother Jaymes Pappeworth.

1607: Will of Edmund Papworth of Chalton, St Ippolitts, Yeoman, written 11 Jun 1607.117 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Elizabeth.
2. To be buried in Hitchin Parish churchyard.
3. Bequests:

· to “Elizabeth my wyfe myne Orchard lying by the Churchyard of Hitchin aforesaid one howse lying also in Hitchin in the tenure of Edward Hobbes, & all my freehold landes lying in the parish of Hitchin aforesaid nowe in the tenure of John Tristram” during her widowhood.
· to elder son William “all myne howses & tenementes & messuages in the tenure of George Heydey & his assignes & of Edward Hobbes aforenamed lying in Hitchin aforesaid: as also (except before bequeathed) all my landes & hereditamentes in the parishe & feyldes of Hitchin aforesaid nowe in the tenure of John Tristram”
· to younger son Edmund, monetary bequests.

4. Residue to … [From here the rest of the original Will is missing, but he mentioned an unnamed executrix, presumably his wife.]

Discussion:
1. he was no doubt the Edmound Papworth of Ippollitts buried 19 Jun 1608.

2. In some records Edmund was called Edward. For instance in the baptism records of his two sons William and Edmund, whom he mentioned here in his Will, he was Edward and Edmund:118

1586 Dec: “The 27 daie was baptized Will’m the sone of Edward Papworth”
1588 Sep: “The 15 daie was baptized Edmound the sone of Edmound Papworth”

In the 1588 subsidy for Hitchin half hundred—which included Ippollitts—Edward Papworthe was assessed at 6s for £6 in goods,119 and for the 1591 Rental of the Manor of Hitchin the property held by Edwarde Papworthe had clearly been held by William in 1556, and was passed on here in Edmund’s Will of 1607. For the separate 1598 subsidy for Ippollitts Edward Papworthe was assessed at 4s for 20s in land.120 However in his father’s Will of 1565 and his own here, as well as the 1584 Hitchin Manor court roll surrender he was Edmund.

3. The “Orchard lying by the Churchyard of Hitchin” that Edmund left here to his wife Elizabeth is a case in point. It was obviously the “orchyard By the Churche yard” held by Edward Papworth in 1591, and the garden next to the churchyard held earlier by William Papworth in 1556 and the “orchyarde and gardyne” bequeathed by William to Edmund in 1565. There were no instructions in Edmund’s Will here as to whom it should remain after his wife Elizabeth, perhaps they were in the missing part of the Will.

4. Much or all of the property that passed to Edmund/Edward from William would have been lumped together here unnamed under the tenancies of Edward Hobbes, John Tristram and George Heydey. One of these would have been the house next to the Swan. “It seems significant that in 1676 both the orchard and the house next to the Swan were held by Frances Barnwell.”121

“Frances, wife of John Barnwell, gentleman, holds of the lady of this manor one orchard next to the Churchyard, once of a certain Papworth and afterwards of Graveley Hurst, deceased and now in the tenure of John Thornton” quit rent 2s 8d per annum.”
“Frances now the wife of John Barnewell, gentleman, holds freely of the lady of this manor one messuage with appurtenances in Bancroft Street, formally two tenements, next to the lane called Codd Pisse Alley, once of Graveley Hurst, deceased and now in the tenure of John Thorneton” quit rent 6s 8d per annum.122

So, some time after 1608 the orchard and the house next to the Swan passed out of Papworth hands and prior to 1676 they passsed to Graveley Hurst and then Frances Barnwell.

1608: Subsidy for Hitchin

Winifrid Papworth Widow was assessed at 16d for 20s in land.
Michael Papworth was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
William Papworth was assessed at 3s for £3 in goods.
Robert Papworth was assessed at 5s for £5 in goods.

1608: Subsidy for Ippollitts

Edward Papworth was assessed at 4s? for £3? in land.

1620: Will of Robert Papworth, Yeoman of Hitchin, written 5 Nov 1620, proved PCC 10 Jan 1621.123 Summary of the Will:

1. Husband of Elizabeth (died 1630).
2. To be buried “in Christian buryall”.
3. Bequests:

· to wife Elizabeth the family home in Hitchin and the two adjoining tenements for a year, after which so long as she remained unmarried “the great loft over my hall and the litle loft lyinge on the Sowth side of the said great lofte belonginge” to the family home, and an annuity of £10 a year from the the family home, the two adjoining tenements and 3 acres of arable land late Welches and two closes of pasture and arable land at Chaulton he purchased from John Awdeley.
· to son William and his son Robert the properties mentioned in the previous item after one year.
· to son William’s eldest son Robert £20, and to each of William’s other children £10 at marriage or 21.
· to son Robert the £300 that he paid Symon Hurst for his father.
· to son Robert’s eldest son William £20, and to each of Robert’s other children £10 at marriage or 21.
· to son William £250 for assigning to his brother Thomas all right and title to the house Thomas was living in, which Robert and William purchased from Mr Gaddesden.
· to son Thomas £120 and the other 3 half acres of arable land in Berrye feild, part of the 3 acres Robert purchased from Nicholas Awdley.
· to Elizabeth, Thomas’ daughter £10 and £10 to “the Child which Sara the wife of the said Thomas doth now goe withall”. The latter was increased to £20 in a Memorandum, should the child be a son—which it was: Robert, baptized 18 Mar 1621.124
· to Robert Lucas, son of my daughter Elizabeth, £20, and to each of Elizabeth’s other children £10 at marriage or 21.
· to my daughter Elizabeth or her children a further £100 with the consent of her brothers William and Thomas and the overseers of the Will.
· to wife Elizabeth £200 “and all my househould stuffe”.
· to sister Elizabeth Cooper 20s and 20s to each of her children now living.
· to Joane Dymyngesdalle, and to John and Anne Williams the children of his deceased sister Agnes, 40s each.
· to wife Elizabeth and to son William and his son Robert various individual items.
· to 8 named servants 10s each and to Arthur Duncombe 40s.

4. Residue to his three sons equally.
5. Executors: Wife Elizabeth and son Robert.
6. Overseers: “my lovinge freindes and kynsmen, William Spicer, Robert Spicer and Thomas Spicer”.
7. Witnesses: James Turner, John Turner, William Papworth.

Discussion:
1. The Will shows a wealthy Yeoman with several properties, many servants and valuable household items such as walnut bedsteads, wainscott hangings and glasse windows. He also left “my great Presse in my parlor” to his eldest son. Robert was the eldest son of Robert (d 1546-7) son of Edmund (d 1540). Robert’s properties were itemised in the manorial Survey of 1556 and Rental of 1591.

2. He mentioned 3 sons: William, Robert and Thomas, all married. All had children alive, Thomas just a daughter Elizabeth [baptized 28 Oct 1619]125 but also an unborn child his wife Sara was pregnant with. Son William was presumably Robert’s eldest son and may have been the witness William Papworth. He was born by 1582. The witness was unlikely to have been Robert’s grandson, the son of his son Robert, born after 1606.

3. Other mentions of Robert Papworth in these documents concerning Papworths:

· 1558: Robert was a witness to the Will of Elizabeth Fryday
· 1560: Bequeathed a silver spoon in the Will of his grandmother Alice Kent.

1624: Will of Michael Papworth of Chaulton “in the parishe of Hitchin”, Yeoman, written 5 Sep 1624.126 Summary of the Will:

1. Wife Jane had been buried 4 Jul 1615.127
2. To be buried at the discretion of his executor.
3. Bequests:

· to all his grandchildren a noble each, that is the children of his sons-in-law John Wallwyn alias Poulter, William Jebson and William Steevens.

4. Residue to son Christopher.
5. Executor: Son Christopher.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Edward Papworth and Francis Crawley.

Discussion:
1. Michael was a son of William Papworth d 1566.
2. On 24 Oct 1616 Joane Papworth married William Stevens, and on 25 Oct 1590 Joane Papworth, daughter of Michaell, had been baptised. This shows that Michael used the term ‘son-in-law’ as we do today.
3. Son Christopher is recorded baptizing children in Hitchin from 1623.
4. Witness Edward Papworth may have been Edward Papworth [snr] of Hyppollettes, Miller, d 1638.

1627: Elizabeth Papworth, of Hitchin, Widow, written 21 Jun 1627.128 Summary of the Will:

1. Widow of Robert died 1621 [not mentioned].
2. To be buried in Christian burial.
3. Bequests:

· to son William Papworth and his eldest son Robert, second son William (at 21), eldest daughter Elizabeth Auncell, and daughter Hanna Papworth (at 21).
· to the 3 children (at 21 or marriage) of deceased son Robert Papworth: William, Elizabeth and Sara.
· to the 4 children (at 21 or marriage) of son Thomas Papworth: Elizabeth, Robert Thomas and Mary, and to “the childe which Sara the wife of the said Thomas doth now goe withall.”
· to son in law Symon Lucas 20s, and daughter Elizabeth Lucas £200 within 6 months of the decease of Symon Lucas her husband, and £12 a year out of its profits until then.
· to Elizabeth Lucas, daughter of Simon Lucas, £40 (at 22 or marriage) and 40s a year out of its profits until then.
· to the other 5 children of Simon Lucas: Robert, Willyam, John, Simon and Mary £10 each (at 22).
· 20s each to Agnes Pearpointe, wife of Moses Pearpointe, and Johane Dyminsdale, wife of Willyam Dyminsdale.

4. Residue to executor.
5. Executor: Son Thomas Papworth.
6. Overseers: Son William Papworth and her two kinsmen Robert Spicer alias Helder and William Benynge.
7. Witnesses: James Turner senr, James Turner Junr and John Turner.

Discussion:
1. Her bequests were all of money and goods, no land.
2. Son Robert and daughter Anne had died by 1627. Robert was alive in 1620, but not Anne apparently.
3. Daughter Elizabeth Lucas had 6 children by 1627. The bequests to her and her children were much larger than to others.
4. Joan Dyminsdale was also left a bequest in husband Robert’s Will—of 40s.
5. Husband Robert had also appointed Robert Spicer as an overseer, along with William and Thomas Spicer, his “lovinge freindes and kynsmen”.
6. James and John Turner were also witnesses to husband Robert’s Will.

1628 Subsidy for Hitchin

William Papworth was assessed at 20s for £5 in land.
Thomas Papworth was assessed at 16s for £4 in land.
(The Ippollitts 1628 return is damaged and illegible.)

1628/9 12 Mar: A settlement by William Papworth Gent on his son Robert and his intended wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Hawes of Bedford Gent. To set up his daughter for life with a husband and a home, Thomas Hawes agreed to pay William Papworth 1000 marks, for which a number of properties were specified which she and her husband could occupy for her life. After that their children would inherit them.129 The Bancroft properties in the settlement look like the ones owned by William and Edmund Papworth in the 16th C, and the 3 acres of arable land in Ridge Feild abutted on the land of Nicholas Brockett of Ippolllitts.

1637: Will and inventory of Edward Papworth of St Ippollitts.130

Witness to Michael’s Will of 1624?

1676: The Survey of the Manor of Hitchin confirms a number of Papworth relationships:131

1677: A copy of a survey of the manor of Temple Dinsley dated 1664 and the book of 18th century extracts from the court rolls in which it is contained has references to Edward Papworth owing rent for his mills and to Robert Papworth surrendering land in 1677. Charlton Mill belonged to the Manor of Temple Dinsley.132

2. Hitchin Parish Registers 1600-50

These show nnn households in Hitchin in 1600 and nnn by 1650.133+Read more

3. Ippollitts Parish Registers 1600-1710

These show nnn Papworth households in Ippollitts in 1600 and nnn by 1650 and nnn in 1710.137

A Papworth branch lived in the neighbouring parish of Ippollitts and in Charlton, or Chalton, (only a mile from Hitchin town centre) in the 17th C. Ippollitts parish records don’t survive before 1605 so it isn’t known if Papworths were there in the early to mid 16th C. At the end of it, in 1598 an Edward Papworthe was assessed at 4s for 20s in land in Ippollitts and again in 1608, but other tax 16th C returns for Ippollitts recorded no Papworths. No Ippollitts Papworth Wills have been found before Edward’s of 1607.

The Ippollitts register is somewhat higgledy-piggedly, with pages from different dates side by side—perhaps exacerbated by the order FMP has presented the images—and by a mixture of hands, some poorly written. The title on the first written page is “Booke of the Marriages & Burialls & Christenings of the parish of St Hippolletts in the Countie of Hartford 1625”, and records go through to 1710, all the images of which have been carefully searched.138 Bishop’s Transcripts survive from 1604, but FMP and FamilySearch haven’t covered these. There is occasional damage and one half page is faded and illegible between March and 24 July 1645, so it’s possible that one or two Papworths—or Brokets—may have escaped record. Here and there are a number of family records spanning several years entered together, as though someone from that family personally wrote the information into the register. This applies to a double page spread written in a fine neat hand, possibly by Edmund Papworth, Miller of Charlton.+Read more

Other records 1600-50

Following are the Papworth records 1600-1650 for Hitchin (and Ippollitts) gathered from other sources, in particular from 2 catalogues: TNA online catalogue,144 and the National Register of Archives digitisation project NRA 308, digitised by TNA.145 NRA 308 comprises miscellaneous deeds and papers relating to Hitchin and district, deposited by the late R L Hine, and subsequently converted to a gift by his Widow, Mrs Florence Hine.146 Included here also are extracts from the Maydencroft Manor Court Rolls that mentioned Papworths. Maydencroft Manor was in the Parish of St Ippolyts and extracts survive from 1603-1702:147+Read more

1676: Bridget Howlett’s 2000 edition of the 1676 Survey of Hitchin manor recorded a large number of properties belonging to Papworths. 1676 is later than our interest on this page, but since properties in the Survey were usually identified by former owners entries can be valuable for clarifying earlier years and generations. Following are some extracts from such entries:211+Read more

Conclusions: Together these records from 1600-50 tell us that:

Page Last Updated: May 3, 2020

Footnotes

For full bibliographical details please see the sections Publications or Glossary.

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[1] Falvey 2019 p 23.

[2] Hine 1929 vol 1 p 85 n xxiii.

[3] 1929 vol 2 p 337, citing Archdeaconry of Huntingdon I 27, which was then at Somerset House.

[4] Communication from the Huntingdonshire archivist Jun 2019. The Will is therefore not in the FamilySearch's online databases of filed or registered Wills of Probate records for the Hitchin Division of the Court of the Archdeaconry of Huntingdon or the Commissary Court of Lincoln for the Archdeaconry of Huntingdon (accessed 17 Jul 2019).

[5] Communication from James Lively 8 Mar 2019.

[6] TNA C 1/113/74.

[7] Communication from David Bethell, 12 May 2019.

[8] TNA CP 40/826.

[9] With thanks again to David Bethell for these two references, May 2019.

[10] Hoskins 1963 p 70.

[11] TNA E 179/120/110.

[12] Proved 15 Nov 1517, Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon, Registered copy wills, 1500-1526, vol 2 f144, Family History Library film 0187856. Gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[13] Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1500-1526 vol 2 f 221v – 222r. Gratefully received from James Lively Apr 2019.

[14] 1929 vol 1 p 92.

[15] HALS DE/Ha/T96. Thanks to James Lively for this reference 7 Jun 2019.

[16] HALS DE/K/21953. Title deeds and estate papers of the Lytton family of Knebworth House, Knebworth, c1279-1910.TITLE DEEDS. Stevenage Shephall.

[17] Hilary 22 Henry VIII. TNA CP 40/1068 d1565 m 8d. For the original Latin and a translation contact the Archivist of this website.

[18] Proved 26 Jun 1532, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1530-1534 vol 4 ff 76-7; Family History Library film 0187857. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[19] Communication from Bridget Howlett 13 Jun 2019.

[20] Maddern 1994.

[21] Hilary 24 Henry VIII. TNA CP 40/1076 d5337 m 9d. For the original Latin and a translation contact the Archivist of this website.

[22] TNA C 1/876/7-8.

[23] Proved 10 Jul 1540, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1538-1541 vol 6 f 126; Family History Library film 0187858. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Roman numerals Arabised.

[24] Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1538-1541 vol 6 ff 173r – 174v (Baldock parish church). Gratefully received from James Lively Apr 2019.

[25] In the text this word is a contraction. The first letter, although different from other initial capital 'M's (as in Mighell and mallet) is the same as the 'M' in Monyden in the preceding Will just before the probate: 'William Sewster of Monyden'. So perhaps it was an 'M' that the clerk used from time to time.

[26] Communication from Bridget Howlett 2 May 2019.

[27] TNA C 1/1118/1. Probably John Gaddysden.

[28] TNA C 1/1120/20.

[29] TNA C 4/79/20.

[30] TNA C 1/1191/59.

[31] Proved 30 Jul 1546 by John Papworth, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1545-1550 vol 8 ff 64-5; Family History Library film 0187859. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Roman numerals Arabised.

[32] Proved 16 May 1547, PCC TNA PROB 11/31/494. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Roman numerals Arabised. Reade 1927 pp 240-1 and 251-2.

[33] Thanks to Bridget Howlett for this information.

[34] TNA E 312/23.

[35] Hilary Term 6 Edw VI, Brigg 1895 p 211.

[36] Proved 16 Oct 1556 PCC TNA PROB 11/38/159. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Ward 1985 pp 179-80.

[37] Reade 1927 pp 241-2.

[38] Hitchin Parish Register. Reade 1927 p 252.

[39] Proved 8 Mar 1539/40 Archdeaconry Court of Bedford. See Ward 1985 pp 180-2 for a transcription and for a summary BARS ABP/R6/16d at https://tinyurl.com/y2lcjafq (accessed 12 Jun 2019). Roman numerals Arabised.

[40] 1985 p 167.

[41] 1985 p 168.

[42] Proved 6 Feb 1501/2, TNA PROB 11/13/144 (Johannes Cooper); Ward 1985 p 182.

[43] 1985 p 168.

[44] Proved 26 Jul 1557, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1557-1558 vol 11 ff 88-9; Family History Library film 0187860. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Roman numerals Arabised.

[45] TNA C 2/Eliz/P3/41.

[46] Proved 11 Jul 1559, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1558-1568 vol 12 f 120; Family History Library film 0187861. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Roman numerals Arabised.

[47] Proved 8 Mar 1560/61, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1558-1568 vol 12 ff 209-10; Family History Library film 0187861. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Roman numerals Arabised.

[48] Proved 7 May 1559 PCC (TNA PROB 11/42B/169). Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[49] Hine papers no. 87617.

[50] Proved 12 Feb 1560, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1558-1568 vol 12 f 179; Family History Library film 0187861. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019; Roman numerals Arabised.

[51] Howlett 2012 pp 42-3, citing HALS 87777.

[52] Proved 31 Jul 1560, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1558-1568 vol 12 f 228; Family History Library film 0187861. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019, italics for extensions and strike-throughs removed.

[53] Proved 24 Oct 1560, PCC TNA PROB 11/43/549. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[54] Proved 11 Dec 1560, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1560-1563 vol 12a f 121; Family History Library film 0187861. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[55] Reade 1927 pp 241 and 251.

[56] Proved 29 Jul 1562, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1560-1563 vol 12a f 197; Family History Library film 0187861. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[57] Mich Term 4 and 5 Eliz, Brigg 1895 p 313.

[58] Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon Hitchin Division, Registered copy wills, 1566-1569 volume 1 folios 26-28, Family History Library film 0091771. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019, italics for extensions and strike-throughs removed.

[59] Hitchin Parish Register, image courtesy of Hertfordshire Archives & Local Studies, published by FindMyPast, accessed 1 Jun 2019.

[60] Laslett 1983 p 83.

[61] TNA E179/121/209, reproduced by kind permission of the National Archives licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

[62] Communication from Bridget Howlett 6 Jun 2019. For a map, see Howlett & Humphries 2018 p 13.

[63] Communication from Bridget Howlett 6 Jun 2019. For a photograph of Bull corner, see Howlett & Humphries 2018 p 181, and a snip from the 1851 OS map at Howlett 2012 p 30.

[64] Hitchin parish register, image courtesy of Hertfordshire Archives & Local Studies, published by FindMyPast, accessed 19 Feb 2019.

[65] Trinity Term 8 Eliz, Brigg 1895 p 344.

[66] Trinity Term 8 Eliz, Brigg 1895 p 345.

[67] TNA E/179/120/147.

[68] TNA E/179/121/165; Brigg 1895 p 330.

[69] TNA E/179/121/180.

[70] TNA E/179/121/193.

[71] TNA E315_391. Image reproduced by kind permission of the National Archives licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

[72] Communication from Bridget Howlett Apr 2019.

[73] TNA E315_391. Image reproduced by kind permission of the National Archives licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

[74] TNA E315_391. Images reproduced by kind permission of the National Archives licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

[75] Communication from Bridget Howlett Apr 2019.

[76] TNA E315_391. Images reproduced by kind permission of the National Archives licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

[77] Thanks to Bridget Howlett for this information.

[78] TNA E/179/121/209.

[79] TNA E/179/121/209.

[80] TNA E/179/121/209.

[81] A note on the first page says, 'That this book is a copy, see 1569, also 1575.' For Jan, Feb and Mar 1568/9 there are no entries and a note says, 'In the originall we fynde none these monthes' and for both Apr and May 1575 there are no entries and a note says, 'In the originall we fynde none this monthe'.

[82] Images of all entries were accessed from FMP's database 30 Apr 2019. All events at Hitchin unless otherwise stated.

[83] 4 baptisms of Hewe's children are recorded in Hitchin Parish Register 1570-74.

[84] As of 28 Apr 2019.

[85] GB0046 D-Z23.

[86] Nos. 87587 - 87834. Inventory compiled August/September 1968.

[87] But according to Reade (1927 p 252) is untraced.

[88] Hitchin Parish Register.

[89] Proved 26 Sep 1581, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1579-1614 vol 3 f 15; Family History Library film 0091772. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[90] Proved 6 Feb 1583/4, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1579-1614 vol 3; Family History Library film 91772; gratefully received from James Lively 6 Jun 2019; Roman numerals Arabised.

[91] See also Reade 1927 pp 241 and 252.

[92] Will written 12 Apr 1591, proved PCC 7 Nov 1593 PROB 11/82/452; Reade 1927 pp 241-2 and 252.

[93] Reade 1927 p 252; TNA C 2/JasI/A5/19.

[94] Hitchin Parish Register.

[95] Hine papers no. 87618.

[96] Proved 29 Sep 1593, Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon Hitchin Division, Original wills vol 1 HW f 151; Family History Library film 1537562. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019.

[97] Hine papers no. 87690.

[98] TNA E/179/121/217.

[99] TNA E/179/121/224.

[100] TNA E/179/121/230.

[101] TNA E/179/248/17.

[102] TNA SC12/31/12. Images reproduced by kind permission of the National Archives licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

[103] TNA SC12/31/12 p 11r; Roman numerals Arabised.

[104] TNA SC12/31/12 p 2v; Roman numerals Arabised.

[105] Communication from Bridget Howlett May 2019.

[106] TNA SC12/31/12 p 10v; Roman numerals Arabised.

[107] Communication from Bridget Howlett May 2019.

[108] Communication from Bridget Howlett Apr 2019.

[109] TNA E/179/121/260, E/179/121/269 and E/179/121/263.

[110] TNA E/179/121/269.

[111] TNA E/179/121/260 and E 179_121_263.

[112] Images of most entries were accessed from FMP's database 30 Apr 2019. All events at Hitchin unless otherwise stated.

[113] For an account of its history and a photograph of a painting of Charlton Mill in 1854, see Howlett 2012 pp 2-5.

[114] TNA E/179/121/304 and E/179/121/337.

[115] Proved 13 Jan 1601, Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon Hitchin Division, Original wills, 1593-1607 vol 3 HW ff 158-9; Family History Library film 1537563. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019. The filed will is at HALS 3HW158, HRT Ref 39770.

[116] Proved 28 Apr 1604, Wills and Administrations Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon 1586-1613 vol 2 HW f 153; Family History Library film 0091770. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019. The filed will is at HALS 2HW153, HRT Ref 39797.

[117] Date of probate missing, Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon Hitchin Division 1586-1613, Original wills, bound volumes, vol 3 HW ff 256-57; Family History Library film 0091770. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019. The filed will is at 2HW267, HRT Ref 39764.

[118] Hitchin Parish Register.

[119] TNA E/179/248/17.

[120] TNA E/179/121/269.

[121] Communication from Bridget Howlett 6 Jun 2019.

[122] Howlett 2000 pp 12, 62.

[123] TNA PROB 11/137/29. Many thanks to James Lively for a copy and transcription of this Will, 10 May 2019.

[124] Hitchin Parish Register.

[125] Hitchin Parish Register.

[126] Proved 22 Dec 1624, Archdeaconry Court of Huntingdon Hitchin Division, Original wills, 1603-1631 bundle 100HW56; Family History Library film 1537549. Transcription gratefully received from James Lively 25 May 2019. The filed will is at HALS 100HW56, HRT Ref 39787, Michael recorded as of St Ippollitts.

[127] Hitchin Parish Register.

[128] Proved PCC 6 May 1630 by executor, TNA PROB 11/157/513. Many thanks to James Lively for a copy and transcription of this Will, 11 May 2019.

[129] HALS 87621. Thanks to Bridget Howlett for this reference, 16 Jul 2019.

[130] Probate Archdeaconry of Huntingdon (Hitchin Division), Filed will and Inventory, HALS 101HW30, HRT Ref 39765.

[131] Howlett 2000.

[132] DE/X169/M1 p 16. Many thanks to Bridget Howlett for this information, 9 Jul 2019.

[133] Images of most entries were accessed from FMP's database 30 Apr 2019. All events at Hitchin unless otherwise stated.

[134] Wrongly transcribed by FMP as son of Everett.

[135] According to FamilySearch without an image, and not in the FMP database (10 May 2019).

[136] Images courtesy of FindMyPast 9 may 2019.

[137] Images of most entries were accessed from FMP's database 30 Apr 2019. All events at Ippollitts unless otherwise stated.

[138] On FMP's database, May 2019.

[139] The entry is faint and father's name is possibly Edmund.

[140] Not in FMP's transcription but with an image in their database (9 May 2019). In FS' transcription but without an image.

[141] Not in FMP's transcription but with an image in their database (9 May 2019). In FS' transcription but without an image.

[142] The image in FMP's database is not crystal clear but there can be little doubt that Edward's surname is Brocket. FamilySearch and FMP transcribed it as 'Bvsckat' which is clearly wrong.

[143] FMP wrongly transcribed this as Wettes (8 May 2019); FS correctly as Welles.

[144] As of 28 Apr 2019.

[145] GB0046 D-Z23.

[146] Nos. 87587 - 87834. Inventory compiled August/September 1968. Some minor records of a Papworth simply being a witness to a deed have been omitted.

[147] Maydencroft Manor Court Rolls Extracts 1603-1702 (HALS 87786). Many thanks to Bridget Howlett for these references July 2019.

[148] Hine papers no. 87691.

[149] Thanks to Bridget Howlett for this information Apr 2019.

[150] Hine papers no. 87692.

[151] HALS DE/X983/72093. Title deeds and estate records of the Hanscombe Family of Pirton, C1290-1883.TITLE DEEDS AND ESTATE RECORDS. IPPOLLITTS.

[152] Probably between 1601-11. Date missing from the catalogue.

[153] Hine papers no. 87693.

[154] TNA C 2/JasI/A5/19.

[155] HALS 87786 p 9.

[156] BL Add MS 16273.

[157] HALS 87786 p 18.

[158] HALS 87786 p 20.

[159] HALS DE/X983/72095. Title deeds and estate records of the Hanscombe Family of Pirton, C1290-1883.TITLE DEEDS AND ESTATE RECORDS. IPPOLLITTS.

[160] HALS DE/X983/72096. Title deeds and estate records of the Hanscombe Family of Pirton, C1290-1883.TITLE DEEDS AND ESTATE RECORDS. IPPOLLITTS.

[161] Hine papers no. 87686.

[162] Hine papers no. 87619.

[163] HALS 87786 p 32.

[164] HALS DE/Pm/19104. Title deeds and Manorial records relating to the Pym family of Norton Bury, Norton, 1542-1892.

[165] HALS DE/Pm/19105. Title deeds and Manorial records relating to the Pym family of Norton Bury, Norton, 1542-1892; and HALS DE/Pm/19104.

[166] HALS 87786 p 33.

[167] HALS DE/Pm/19490. Title deeds and Manorial records relating to the Pym family of Norton Bury, Norton, 1542-1892.

[168] HALS 87786 p 34.

[169] HALS 87786 p 35.

[170] HALS 87786 p 36.

[171] HALS 87786 p 37.

[172] HALS DE/Pm/19108. Title deeds and Manorial records relating to the Pym family of Norton Bury, Norton, 1542-1892.

[173] HALS DP53/6/1 or 87621. HITCHIN (ST MARY'S) PARISH RECORDS. CHURCHWARDENS. Property. Deeds, etc.

[174] Hine papers no. 87620.

[175] Hine papers no. 87621.

[176] HALS DE/Pm/19129. Title deeds and Manorial records relating to the Pym family of Norton Bury, Norton, 1542-1892.

[177] Folger Library MS Add 924 f31v, see https://tinyurl.com/y4srr9e4 (accessed 2 May 2019). Many thanks to the Library staff for images of the manuscript.

[178] f33r.

[179] f33r.

[180] ff32r, 32v, 33r.

[181] Hine papers no. 877744.

[182] HALS DE/Pr/77832. Title deeds and estate papers of the Pryor family of Weston Park, Weston, 13th C-1910... TITLE DEEDS. WESTON. Jepps Family Papers.

[183] HALS 87786 pp 45-6.

[184] HALS DE/Pr/77918. Title deeds and estate papers of the Pryor family of Weston Park, Weston, 13th C-1910... TITLE DEEDS. WESTON. Jepps Family Papers.

[185] HALS DE/Pr/77833. Title deeds and estate papers of the Pryor family of Weston Park, Weston, 13th C-1910... TITLE DEEDS. WESTON. Jepps Family Papers.

[186] HALS 87786 p 47.

[187] Hine papers no. 87700.

[188] Hine papers no. 87701.

[189] Hine papers no. 87768.

[190] HALS DE/Pm/19522. Title deeds and Manorial records relating to the Pym family of Norton Bury, Norton, 1542-1892.

[191] HALS 87786 p 50.

[192] TNA E 115/312/142. (Any information not given in this certificate comes from its old pouch, no 2837.)

[193] HALS DE/Pr/77836. Title deeds and estate papers of the Pryor family of Weston Park, Weston, 13th C-1910... TITLE DEEDS. WESTON. Jepps Family Papers.

[194] HALS 87786 p 53.

[195] HALS DE/Pr/77920. Title deeds and estate papers of the Pryor family of Weston Park, Weston, 13th C-1910... TITLE DEEDS. WESTON. Jepps Family Papers.

[196] Hine papers no. 87715.

[197] Hine papers no. 87716, 7 and 8.

[198] HALS 87786 p 55.

[199] HALS DE/Pr/77921. Title deeds and estate papers of the Pryor family of Weston Park, Weston, 13th C-1910... TITLE DEEDS. WESTON. Jepps Family Papers.

[200] Hine papers no. 87729/5.

[201] Hine papers no. 87729/8

[202] Hine papers no. 87729/2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

[203] HALS 87786 p 57.

[204] HALS 87786 p 65.

[205] HALS 87786 p 71.

[206] HALS 87786 p 85.

[207] HALS 87786 p 100.

[208] HALS 87786 p 117.

[209] Email communication from Bridget Howlett 12 Jul 2019.

[210] HALS 87786 p 118.

[211] Howlett 2000 p 12.

[212] Howlett 2000 p 12.

[213] Howlett 2000 p 19.

[214] Howlett 2000 p 20.

[215] Howlett 2000 p 23.

[216] Howlett 2000 p 30.

[217] Howlett 2000 p 44.

[218] Howlett 2000 p 55.

[219] Howlett 2000 p 67.

[220] Howlett 2000 p 72.

[221] Howlett 2000 p 73.

[222] Howlett 2000 p 74.

[223] Howlett 2000 p 83.

[224] Howlett 2000 p 108.