The Papworths of Hitchin half hundred
By the early 18th C there were many Papworths living in Hitchin town, Hertfordshire, some with memorials in the parish church with a coat of arms. But what about earlier centuries? The first 25 years of the parish register (from 1562) suggest only about 3 Papworth households there then, and Wills and tax records from the preceding 25 years suggest one main line. But what about earlier than that? Again it seems that there was only the one family stretching back through the generations, but records naturally become scarcer the further back you go—indeed none have reliably been found before the early 16th C—and it may simply be that records of the main, wealthier, line are all that were kept or survived. As for the second half of the 16th C and later, in broad outline it seems that the wealth of the family descended down two lines from Edmund (d 1540). The line from his eldest son William (d 1566) mostly lived in nearby Charlton and by the late 17th C had fallen on hard times. The other line descended from Edmund’s second son Robert (d by 1546), and spawned the gentleman families of the 17th and later centuries. This chart presents an outline of the clan and what follows below is the evidence:
Contents of this page:
The population of Hitchin in 1563 is estimated at 245 families.1
No Papworths are to be found in the Visitations of Hertfordshire or London, nor in Chauncy’s The historical antiquities of Hertfordshire. So, the pre 17th C family was not of the landed gentry class, however 16th Wills and tax records suggest they were well-to-do Yeomen, owning several properties in the town. One appears to have been a Maltster, another a Mercer, and members of a branch in the neighbouring parish of Ippollitts were Millers. Then by 1628, at least, one Hitchin Papworth was styled a gentleman. The historian Hine said that the Hitchin Papworths were wool-staplers from 1350-1825, citing Chauncy (who didn’t actually mention them).2 Hine’s evidence seems to have been a tenuous link between the burial of several Papworths in the north chapel of the church, where one of the paintings on the window might have been St Blaize, patron saint of wool-combers and wool-staplers. Wool-staplers were middlemen, buying wool from the farmer, sorting and grading it, and selling it on.
Papworths and Brokets would have had connections in and around the market town of Hitchin from at least the 15th C. The first recorded intermarriage was in the mid 16th C when Alice, daughter of William Papworth, married William, eldest son of William Brokett of Hitchin. This would have been a good match as both families appear to have been up-and-coming Yeomen, each with several substantial properties in the parish.
Currently we know of only one, possibly two, records of 15th C Hitchin Papworths.
· “I am afraid that I have been unable to locate the will of William Papworth. The original reference in Hine’s ‘History of Hitchin’ gives the reference for when the archdeaconry records were held at Somerset House and in the move to Huntingdon the early wills have disappeared. The earliest ones we hold and that I can find record of through other compilations and indexes are from 1479. For good measure, I have also checked Hertfordshire’s catalogue in case it was sent there but have similarly found no trace.”4
· “It is not referenced in: British Record Society Volume 28 Consistory Court of Lincoln Wills 1320-1600; PCC Will indexes, both online and in book form; British Record Society Volume 120 Hertfordshire wills.”5
Between 1486-93 or 1504-15 John Ambrose and Johanne, his wife, daughter and heir of John Albon, sued Richard Papworth in Chancery, regarding the detention of deeds relating to a messuage and garden in Hitchin, late of the said John Albon.6 The pleadings were addressed to the Archbishop of Canterbury as Lord Chancellor, who could have been either John Morton 1486-1493 or William Warham 1504-1515. “For that period, the bundles were sorted in the 19th century on the basis of the identity of the Chancellor to whom the petition was addressed, and then by the initial of the petitioner’s surname. But, as in this case, that identification is sometimes ambiguous. Whatever original arrangement there was is probably destroyed, so it would be dangerous to come to a conclusion from adjoining petitions,which are similarly undated. The endorsement merely says that the subpoena was returnable on the quindene of Michaelmas next, without specifying the year. And in the printed calendar there is no more particular date assigned to any petition in this bundle.”7 One of the pledges was a Richard Kyng of London Haberdasher, presumably a citizen, who could perhaps be traced. A John Albon of Hitchin butcher appears as a defendant in a suit in the Common Pleas of Hilary 1468,8 and a John Albon of Hitchin butcher appears in a Patent Roll for 1468 being pardoned for non-appearance in another debt case.9 Unless these two cases refer to an earlier John Albon of Hitchin, they suggest that the Ambrose v Papworth Chancery complaint probably dates from the 1486-93 Chancellorship.
The relationship of Richard Papworth to the William who died 1464 and the William who died 1520 (as follows) remains unknown, but perhaps he was of the generation in between.
Prior to the lay subsidy of 1524-5 assessments “had become increasingly conventional and remote from reality”,10 and none had a systematic list of Hitchin tax payers. The 1524-5 returns for Hitchin are largely legible, although in a few places are damaged and faded.11 Edmund Papworth was assessed at £4 in goods, due 2s for Hitchin Portman, and it’s possible that another Papworth or two might have been recorded in the damaged parts, given the Will of William in 1520 that also mentioned William—albeit under 21—and the the 1526 land deed mention of Robert and John. But aside from subsidies, the following references from Wills, catalogue records and Common Pleas actions have been found from 1500-40:
1517: Will of Jamys Tydye of Hitchin, written 29 Sep 1517.12 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Margaret.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
· to 2 sons and 2 daughters when they reach 20 years.
· to sister Alis Sheppard, Sir Richarde Lacy, old Thomas Tydy and his daughter, godson John Garter, and to Edmunde Papworth his ray gowne.
4. Residue to wife Margaret.
5. Executors: Wife Margaret and John Lacy.
6. Overseers: John Hemynges the elder and John Tristram.
7. Witnesses: Sir John Leventhrope vicar of Hichyne, William Papworth, Roger Lilly, Jamys Chatam with others.
1. The Will shows that there were at least 2 adult male Papworths in Hitchin in 1517. For want of other contemporary records to namesakes, William was likely the one who died in 1520, and Edmund his eldest son.
Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Johan.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
· “to the gilding of the rood loft a quarter of malt” mentioned by Hine.14
· “To my wife half my head howse to dwell in as long as she stays unmarried and Edmond my son to have the whole house to himself [if she marries].”
· To son John my tenement next to Cappis Welle and 7½ acres of arable land in Walsworth Field.
· To son William my tenement next to it and 6 acres of land in Maydencroft Field.
· Edmond my son to pay his brothers John and William 40s each when they reach 21.
· Some of the silver spoon bequests perhaps were to godchildren.
· James Tydy was perhaps a son of his namesake (d 1517).
4. Residue to wife.
5. Executors: Wife Johan and son Edmond.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Sir John Leventhrop vicar of Hitchin, George Graveley, WIlliam Kent with others.
1. William mentioned wife Johan and sons Edmond, John and William, but no daughters.
2. There can be no doubt that son Edmond was the Edmund who died in 1540.
3. Sons John and William were still under 21, therefore younger than Edmond, and born after 1499. Definite records survive for son John, but not for son William. The next record of a William found is from 1540, and it is clearly not of this William but of Edmond’s son William (d 1566). Subsequent records of Williams in this time frame are also clearly all of Edmond’s son.
· 1520: This Will of William Papworth. John was under 21, so born after 1499.
· 1532: Will of George Graveley “John Papworthe my brother”. Presumably the son of William (d 1520), and so aged 32 at the most in 1532. Alternatively, John was an otherwise unknown older John Papworth of the generation of William who died in 1520.
· 1540: Will of Edmund Papworthe. “John papworth my brother” co-supervisor.
· 1545: Will of Robert Snedalle of Hitchin. John Papworthe, father of 4 children, was a co-executor. Probably brother of Edmund died 1540.
· 1548: Letters of attorney from John Papworthe of Hitchin, Yeoman.
· 1557: Will of William Hubbard of Hitchin, Yeoman.
· 1558: Co-overseer of the Will of Elizabeth Fryday.
· 1559: Co-executor of the Will of John Lucas.
· 1560: ‘Brother’ (i.e. in-law) of Alice Kent, as overseer of her Will. Alice left 3s 4d “to all his childrene”. Also—if the same John—he was a witness to the Will.
· 1560: Will of Leonard Daye of Hitchin, written 12 Mar 1559/60. John lived in a house owned by Leonard.
· 1565: “The 9 daie [Nov] was buryed John Papworth”—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register, which survives from 1562.
· 1565: Will of William Papworthe of Hitchin. John Papworthe the elder a witness.
· 1583/4: “The 12 daie [Feb] was buried John’ Papworth”—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register.
5. Calling it his ‘hed howse’ implies this was his main property and he had another house or houses. If so, he probably singled this one out as he wanted to ensure his Widow could continue to live in the main house—so long as she stayed single. Subsequently it should devolve entirely to Edmond, and indeed Edmund left it to his eldest son William, and he in turn to his son Edward. It was referred to in the 1556 Survey and 1591 Rental as the house next to the Swan [Inn].
6. He left a quarter of malt in 4 bequests so it looks as though he was a Maltster (among other things perhaps—he mentioned ‘the shopp’ and ‘the bruying vessel’).
7. This enables the following chart: [To follow]
1526 Dec: Deed of gift of two pightles and 3r of land at Charlton, Hitchin, Hertfordshire, by Nicholas Franckelyn of Hitchin, Hertfordshire, yeoman, to Edmund Papworth, Robert Papworth, and John Papworth.15
1527 26 Dec: Grant. By William Hyde of Stevenage, yeoman, for a sum of money paid by Roger Hyde lying “in extremis”, to George Graveley of Hitchin, Edward Papworth of the same, and William Robynson of Stevenage of Wilcokkys Croft at Stonall, Stevenage and land in Frythfelde and Sedcopp field, Stevenage. Field names given. Seal missing.16 Comment: No further record of an Edward Papworth has so far been found in this period, suggesting that this 1527 record was a misrecording or alias of Edmund—as in 1647—although he could of course also have been a different person, of whom just this isolated record has survived.
1531 20 Jan: Edmund Papworthe made a plea at the court of Common Pleas at Westminster against William Clerke of Hitchin Tallow Chandler, and William Perlys of Hitchin Butcher for a debt of 20 marks each. Neither had appeared many times to face the charge and the court ordered the Hertfordshire sheriff to exact them from county court to county until they are outlawed if they do not appear:17
1532: Will of George Graveley of Hichyn, written 5 May 1532.18 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Agnes.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
3. Bequests to:
· Wife Agnes, including his house in Bancroft street between a tenement of Anthony Walgrave gentleman on the north side and the house belonging to the fraternity or brotherhood on the south for term of her life.
· Daughter Johane.
· Sons Thomas (the Bancroft street house after Agnes), Edmunde, John (all the real estate in Graveley and Cheisfelde).
· The infant my wife is pregnant with.
· “John Fridaye my father inlawe £20”.
· “unto John Papworthe my brother a baye geldynge and a graye nagge also”.
4. Residue to his children when they reach the age of 18.
5. Executors: Father in law John Friday and Robert Snedalle (d 1546).
6. Overseer: none.
7. Witnesses: Sir Umfrie Cottun vicar of Hitchin, Thomas Browne, Jamys Lyon, with others.
1. John Papworthe was obviously not George Graveley’s actual brother, or else they would have had the same surname; for the term ‘brother’, see below. One or other of them might have married the other’s sister, i.e. was their brother-in-law, or one of each of their parents might have remarried to each other, making George and John step brothers. Indeed, they may not even have been that closely related. But as with Edward Brocket of Dunton’s Will, George and John most likely had a kinship of some kind. George had just mentioned “John Fridaye my father inlawe”, so if John had been George’s literal brother-in-law you might have expected him to have said so. For other records of John Papworth, see here.
2. That John Fridaye was George’s father-in-law probably means that George’s wife Agnes was formerly a Fryday. In her Will of 1558 Elizabeth Fryday, Widow, bequeathed all her real estate to Thomas and John Graveley and appointed the latter her sole executor. These two may have been the sons mentioned by George Graveley here in 1532. George mentioned a daughter Johane, but not Elizabeth, however, so perhaps Elizabeth Fryday’s relationship to the Graveleys was through her husband. “Elizabeth Fryday, widow of John Fryday of Hitchin, yeoman was the daughter of John Hemming or Emmyng of Hitchin, yeoman, who lived in Bancroft in the house later called The Hermitage. In his will dated 1524 he left £10 to her and her two children. Her husband John’s will proved in January 1535/6 does not include any bequests to their children, but does include John Graveley and Thomas Graveley, his daughter’s sons.”19 So Thomas and John Graveley would have been Elizabeth’s grandsons, her daughter’s sons.
3. Reference to “the last Will and testament of my father John Graveley”.
Collateral kinship terms like brother, sister, cousin, weren’t always used precisely in 16th C records. For reasons of affection or brevity, the more cumbersome ‘brother/sister-in-law’ was sometimes shortened to ‘brother/sister’, and the term ‘step brother/sister’ is seldom seen. In his Will of 1598 Edward Brocket of Dunton appointed “My lovinge brother Richard Pryor” co-supervisor of his Will. Richard was actually husband of a first cousin of Edward, so calling Richard ‘brother’ there must have been a term of affection towards an in-law relative, as opposed to a reference to an actual sibling, or even brother-in-law. Edward’s other co-supervisor was Robert Hynde, whom he called “my trustie & loveinge Frynd”. While too much can be read into single comments, no kin relationship between Robert and Edward has been found, and the term ‘friend’ rather than ‘brother’ there may reflect this.20
Relevant occurrences of kinship terms in these documents concerning Papworths:
· 1532: Will of George Graveley “John Papworthe my brother”. John was obviously not George’s actual brother.
· 1532: Will of George Graveley “John Fridaye my father in lawe”.
· 1556: Will of Michell Cowper of Henlow “my brother in Lawe Willyam Papworthe” co-executor with Michell’s wife.
· 1558: Will of John Monke of Hitchin, Draper. John’s sole executor was “William Papworth my brother”. William was in fact John’s brother-in-law—John was the husband of Elizabeth, William’s sister.
· 1560: Will of Alice Kent “John Papworth my brother to be my overseare”. This meant brother-in-law—John was the brother of Edmund Papworth, Alice’s first husband.
· 1560: Will of Leonard Daye “I make my brother William Papworth overseer”. William and Leonard’s relationship hasn’t been determined.
· 1565: Will of William Papworthe Overseers: “my brother in law William Cowpare of London and George Underwood my sonne in law” [husband of Alice who married William Brokett and later George Underwood.
· 1591 and 1620: Half-brothers William Audley and Robert Papworth in their Wills each referred to their ‘sisters’ Cooper and Agnes, technically half sisters of at least one of them.
· 1624: Will of Michael Papworth of Chaulton, Yeoman. Michael mentioned the children of his 3 sons-in-law, and the record of the marriage of one of his daughters to one of them shows Michael used the term ‘son-in-law’ as we do today.
1533 Hilary: Edmund Papworth made a plea at the court of Common Pleas at Westminster against Richard Astry late of St Albans Yeoman for a debt of 20 marks and against John Serley late of Edworth in the county of Bedford Husbandman for a debt of 40s. Neither had appeared many times to face the charge and the court ordered the Hertfordshire sheriff to to get them to court on 27 April 1533:21
1533-8: Chancery pleadings addressed to Sir Thomas Audley as Lord Chancellor. Plaintiff: Edmund Papworthe, yeoman. Defendant: Thomas Lawrence, husband of Ellen, late the wife of Edward Felde. Subject: Detention of deeds relating to a messuage in Hitchin, whereof complainant has bought the reversion from John, son of the said Edward, and refusal to permit repairs.22
1540: Will of Elizabethe Webb of Hitchin, written 1540.23 Summary of the Will:
1. Widow, former husband’s name not mentioned.
2. To be buried in Hitchin churchyard.
· “unto Edmunde Papworthes childrene 13s 4d the which was my husbonds will also to Elizabeth Papworth a bedsted”.
· various small items to Master Pulter, Master Parishe, and Susane Dumno.
4. Residue to Richard Dumno.5. Executor: Richard Dumno.
6. Overseer: Leonarde Day.
7. Witnesses: Sir Thomas Crosdayle parish priest of Hichyne, Leonarde Day and Richard Dumno with others.
1. Edmunde Papworth would have been the one who died between November that year and March 1541 and whose Will mentioned 5 children. One was Elizabeth, already married to Mounke, so the Elizabeth Papworth mentioned here by Elizabeth Webb was probably of Edmund’s generation, perhaps his sister or sister-in-law. That the bequest was her husband’s will suggests that the relationship to the Papworths was with Elizabeth Webb’s husband.
In the Name of God Amen. The iijth day of Nouember in the yere of our lorde god a thowsand CCCCC and xl in the xxxvij yere of the reigne of kynge henrie the viijth I Edmunde papworthe of hichyn within the countie of hertford M[erc]er25 hole of mynde and in good memorie laude and praysing be vnto almightie god make this my present testamente and last will in the manner and forme folowing First I bequeithe my soull vnto almightie god my sauyor vnto the Blisside lady seynt mary and vnto all the holie companye in heuyn my body to be buriede within the church yarde of hichyn aforseide Item I geue vnto the highe aultere of the seid church xijd Item I geue vnto the mother churche in lincoln iiijd Item I geue vnto the reparacions of the seide church vjs viijd Item I geue and bequeith vnto william and Roberte my too sonnys all suche wares that apperteynethe vnto my shope to be equallie deuidide betwyne them Item I geue vnto Alice my doughter vijli in redy money she to haue it whan yt shalbe hir chaunce to mary orelles when she cummys to the age of xxti yeris And yf she do departe the worlde befor she be maryede orellis or she cummys to the seid age of xxti yeris that then I will that Jamys my sonne shall haue the seid vijli to be delyueride to hym when he commys to the age of xxti yeris And yf the seid Jamys do departe the worlde befor he cummys to the seid age of xxti yeris Then I will the seid vijli to be deuydide to my seid too sonnys william and Roberte Item I will that all my sheape that I haue shalbe equally deuydide betwen my iij sonnys and Alice my doughtere they to haue them immediatlie after my decesse Item I will that all suche money as I doo owe vnto Alice parrys widowe shalbe paide the one halfe by Alice my wif and the other halfe by Robert my sonne Item I geue vnto Elizabeth mounke my doughtere a quarter of malte / And as to the distribution of my landis and tenementys first I will that Alice my wif take all the profightis of all my landys and tenementys boith fre and copie vnto the fest of seynt Mighell next cumminge after the Date of theis presents Item I geue vnto Alice my wif my house that I dwell in so long as she keape hir self vnmaried And yf she do marye or departe the worlde than I will that william my sonne haue yt Item I geue vnto Roberte my sonne my house that I purchaside of William Parrys And also the reuersion of the house that I purchaside of John felde in the which John laurennce doo dwell in to haue and to holde to the seid Robert his heires and assignys for ever Item I geue vnto the seid Roberte my copie callide wymyngham to holde after the custome and manner of the lordship Item I geue vnto Jamys my sonne my copie callid a dolle and a house whiche I haue by copie lying at portmyll and he to be answeride the profight of them from the fest of seynt Mighell next vnto the tyme he comys to the age of xxti yeris the out rentes and the reparacions to be alowide Item I will that Alice my wif haue the ouersight of them The residue of all my goodis my dettes my legaces paide and my funerall expensis don I geue holie vnto Alice my wif whom I make my sole executrixe John papworth my brother and George Kent to be my superuisores the seid John to haue for his paynes iijs iiijd And the seid George ijs Theis being witnesse henrie mallet my curate Robert Onedall Richarde Chamber Richarde Baldoke John Dardes with other moo :/
Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in Hitchin churchyard.
3. Bequests (including 4 houses and 2 copyholdings):
· “I geue vnto Alice my wif my house that I dwell in so long as she keape hir self vnmaried And yf she do marye or departe the worlde than I will that william my sonne haue yt”
· “I geue vnto Roberte my sonne my house that I purchaside of William Parrys”
· “And also [to son Roberte] the reuersion of the house that I purchaside of John felde in the which John laurennce doo dwell”
· “I geue vnto the seid Roberte my copie callide wymyngham”
· “I geue vnto Jamys my sonne my copie callid a dolle”
· “and [also to son James] a house whiche I haue by copie lying at portmyll”.
· to daughter Alice £7 at marriage or aged 20.
· a debt owing to Alice Parrys, Widow, to be paid half by wife Alice and half by son Robert.
3. Residue to wife Alice.
4. Sole executrix: wife Alice.
5. Supervisors: Brother John Papworth and George Kent.
6. Witnesses: Henrie Mallet my curate, Robert Onedall, Richarde Chamber, Richarde Baldoke, John Dardes, with others.
1. Edmund was a Mercer with a shop. He was the eldest son of William Papworth, died 1520, who also had a shop. Edmund, first mention so far found in 1517, was probably also the Edward Papworth mentioned in 1527—two other Hitchin Papworths also used both Edmund and Edward interchangeably in the next century.
3. Children: William, Robert, Elizabeth Mounke, Alice (unmarried and under 21), James.
4. Edmund’s family house that he left to his Widow so long as she stayed single, was probably his father William’s ‘hed howse’. After Edmund’s wife it should devolve to their eldest son William, and the 1556 Survey confirms it to have been the house next to le Swanne, quit rent 6s, in William’s possession.
5. The numerous records cited below of William Papworth—from this 1540 Will of Edmund, through the 1540s, 50s and 60s up to his own Will of 1565—portray a prominent member of the Hitchin Yeoman community, and there can be no doubt that they all concern one person, this William son of our Edmund here. No record of the William Papworth of the previous generation, the son of William (d 1520), has been found.
6. In 1556 son James still held the properties Edmund left him, but he wasn’t mentioned in his mother’s Will of 1560. In 1591 one of them was referred to as previously belonging to “James Papworth the innocent”. James probably suffered from what is now called Learning Difficulties.26 Had he died by 1591? A James Papworth was buried in Hitchin in 1589 and 1590. The other one married Winifred Kent, who was recorded as a Widow in 1598. Following are the records found of Jameses in these documents concerning Papworths:
· 1545: Bequest in the Will of Robert Snedalle. To James Papworth 20s.
· 1546: Bequest in the Will of William Audeley. To James Papworth 20s.
· 1560: Not mentioned in the Will of his mother. Had he died?
· 1565 Sep: “The 24 daie were maryed Jeames Papworth & Winifred Kent”—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register, which survives from 1562. 4 daughters recorded baptised between 1566-73.
· 1589: James Papworth buried 10 Jul 1589—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register.
· 1590: James Papworth buried 28 Jul 1590—entry in the Hitchin Parish Register.
· No further entries in the Hitchin Parish Register for a James Papworth before 1650.
The 1545 and 46 records could either have been of ‘James the innocent’ the brother of William (d 1566) and Elizabeth Munke, or—less likely—of James who married Winifred Kent in 1565.
7. Son Robert, however, had died by 16 May 1547, perhaps by 24 Jul 1546, and by 1566 the properties Edmund had left him in 1540 were held by Robert’s son Robert. We know this for the following reasons:
1. 1544-7: The Defendants in a Chancery suit were William Audeley and Joan his wife, executrix and late the wife of Robert Papworth of Hitchin, yeoman.
2. Robert wasn’t mentioned in the Will of of William Audeley [snr], written 24 Jul 1546.
3. 1544-1551: William, son and executor of William Audeley [snr] was Plaintiff in another suit. This must have been after 16 May 1547, when William Audeley senior’s Will was proved.
Robert’s Will has so far not been found. He died young, perhaps intestate.
· 1545: Bequest in the Will of Robert Snedalle. To Elizabeth Mounke 20s.
· 1546: Bequest in the Will of William Audeley. To Elizabeth Munke 20s.
· 1558: The Will of her husband John Monke referred to “Elizabeth late my wiff” showing that Elizabeth had died by Oct 1558. John mentioned their children.
· 1560: Bequests in the Will of her mother Alice Kent “to the 7 childrene of John Moonke which he hade by my doughter Elizabeth his wiff £13 6s 8d a peace to be paide to them severallye when they cume to the age of 21 yeres”; and “I geve more to John Monke a fetherbede a payre of sheates a bolstare a cople of pillowebeares”.
· 1565: William, Elizabeth’s brother, directed his wife to pay these 1560 legacies from his mother, and others from John Munke, to John Munke’s children in his Will.
9. Brother John Papworth. For other records of John, see here.
10. Edmund’s wish to be buried in Hitchin churchyard was fulfilled. 20 years later, his wife Alice willed to be buried there too, “nyghe to my husbonde Edmunde Papworthe decessde”.
11. With the evidence thus far we can construct the following chart:
1544-7: Chancery pleadings addressed to Thomas Wriotheseley, Lord Wriotheseley as Lord Keeper or Lord Chancellor. Plaintiff: John Eaddysden [of Hitchin], yeoman. Defendants: William Audeley and Joan his wife, executrix and late the wife of Robert Papworth of Hitchin, yeoman. Subject: Corn entrusted to the said Papworth for malting.27 See William Audeley.
1544-7: Plaintiff: John, grandson of Humphrey Flynders. Defendants: John Papworth and Thomas Upton. Subject: Messuage in Shefford. Bedfordshire.28 The John Flynders v John Papworth and Thomas Upton answer, dated 1450-1550, is probably the same case.29
1544-1551: Plaintiff: William, son and executor of William Audeley. Defendant: William Papeworth. Subject: Lease of tithe corn of Great Wymondley. Hertfordshire.30 This must have been after 16 May 1547, when William Audeley senior’s Will was proved. The suit was still not apparently resolved in 1603-25.
1545: Will of Robert Snedalle of Hichyn, written 12 Nov 1545.31 Summary of the Will:
1. Robert was unmarried, or perhaps a Widower without surviving children.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
3. Bequests (all of goods and chattells):
· to the 4 children of John Papworth £4, i.e. 20s each. This was immediately following bequests to 4 male Snedalls.
· to James Papworth 20s.
· to Elizabeth Mounke 20s.
· to Robert Papworth 20s.
· to [the] 2 children of William Papworth 40s, i.e. 20s each.”
· to godchildren a sheep each.
· to John Graveley, Thomas Graveley and Johane Graveleye Olivere £3, i.e. 20s each. These 3—or at least their namesakes—were also left bequests by Elizabeth Fryday in 1558.
4. Residue at the disposition of the Executors John Papworth and John Dards, adding “And the said John Dards shall nat medell with no parte of my goodes”.
5. Overseer: Thomas Parrys
6. Witnesses: William Pultere, William Audeley, William Papworth, William Hertrede, Leonard Daye, with others.
1. Giving so many bequests to Papworths and appointing one his co-executor—probably the brother of Edmund (d 1540)—suggests that Robert Snedalle had a close relationship to the Papworth family. Perhaps his wife had been one, if he had been married, or his sister had married one of them.
2. Be that as it may, the Will is evidence that William Papworth, son of Edmund, had 2 children by 1546.
3. Robert, Edmund’s son, was still alive. He had died by 1547.
1546: Will of William Audeley of Hitchin Yeoman, written 24 Jul 1546.32 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in the south quire of Hitchin Parish Church.
3. Bequests. William left several properties, and after generous gifts to the poor and for prayers for his soul, left bequests to his unmarried daughter Johan, his son William, daughter Agnes and wife Alice. The only other legatees were:
· to 2 daughters of William Papworth each 10s
· to my brother’s children each 2s
· to my godchildren each 4d
· to James Papworth 20s
· to Elizabeth Munke 20s
· to William Pulter gentleman 40s
4. Residue to son William
5. Executors: Son William Audeley and brother John Audeley.
6. Overseers: Edward Brokett and Thomas Parrys.
7. Witnesses: John Papworth, William Papworth, Edwarde Hurste with others.
2. Apart from his own family, godchildren, and William Pulter, William left bequests to 3 Papworths, at least two of them siblings: William, James and Elizabeth Munke. William was also a witness.
3. The bequest to the two daughters of William Papworth provides a latest birth date of early 1546 for the younger. The 1560 Will of Alice Kent—William Papworth’s mother—mentioned one, Alice, still a minor and unmarried. The 1565 Will of their father William Papworth himself mentioned 3 unmarried daughters under 20.
4. James Papworth, as just suggested, could either have been ‘James the innocent’ the brother of William and Elizabeth Munke, or—less likely—the James who married Winifred Kent in 1565, perhaps their uncle; see above.
5. Elizabeth Munke was the sister of William and James Papworth.
6. That William didn’t also leave a bequest here to William, James and Elizabeth’s brother Robert, the previous husband of his own son William’s wife Joan, suggests that Robert had died by 24 Jul 1546, when this Will was written, and that his own son William had perhaps already married Joan. Be that as it may, leaving bequests to 3 probable Papworth siblings points to a close relationship with their father, Edmund (d 1540).
7. The witness John Papworth was an uncle of the 3 Papworth siblings, a brother of Edmund (d 1540). The witness William Papworth died 1566, and was the son of Edmund (d 1540) and the father of the two daughters left 10s each here by William Audeley.
8. The first overseer was doubtless Edward Brokett of Letchworth, a prominent Esquire in and around Hitchin and Sheriff of the County the following year—no other contemporary adult Edwards are known, other than his son, scarcely 30 years old in 1546 and unlikely to have been the overseer. Thomas Parrys was a wealthy and prominent Hitchin Gentleman. In 1543 he was deputy bailiff of Hitchin to Sir Ralph Sadler.33 and in the 1556 Hitchin Manor court of survey he was one of the jurors. He was also overseer of the Wills of Robert Snedalle in 1545-6 and William Brokett of Hitchin 1556-7. He was probably not the same Thomas Parrys, overseer of the Wills of William and Joan Audley 36 years later in 1582 below.
1548-9: Letters of attorney from John Papworthe of Hitchin, Herts, yeoman, to John Gaddesden, attesting bargain and sale of his interest in a lease of closes at Cambleton, Beds, granted by Henry VIII, dated 2 Edw. VI.34 For other records of John, see here.
1552-3: William Papworth purchased a toft and a garden in Hitchyn from Wm. Frauncys Esq.35
1556: Will of Michell Cowper of Henlow, Bedfordshire, Yeoman, written 2 Jul 1556.36 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Elizabeth.
2. To be buried in the parish churchyard, Henlow.
· to John Cowper his eldest son all the freehold land he bought from his brother Willyam Cowper in Arlesey. Plus other properties.
· to son Edmund property in Henlow, and farm gear, 6 years after his mother had them.
· to other sons Olyver, George, Richard, Robert, the last 3 when they reach 20.
· to daughters Agnes and Judith, both unmarried and under 18.
· to wife Elizabeth property.
4. Residue not mentioned.
5. Executors: “Elizabeth my said wief and my brother in Lawe Willyam Papworthe“.
6. Overseer: John Page Gent.
7. Witnesses: James Turner vicar of Henlow, Richard Emerie, Thomas Underwood, Henry Edwardes with others
How might Michell’s co-executor Willyam Papworthe have been his ‘brother in law’?
1. Willyam Papworthe here was doubtless the William whose Will was proved 1567. This William was legally of age by the time of the death of his father Edmund Papworth in 1540, so born at least by 1519, probably a good few years before. No further record has been found attributable to the William, brother of Edmund, since his mention in their father’s Will of 1520.
2. In 1556 Michell Cowper had 6 surviving sons and 2 daughters. The first 4 sons were bequeathed property, however the 4th, George, had first to reach 20 years. The last 2, Richard and Robert, were bequeathed £20, also when they reached 20. So in 1556 the eldest John must have been well into his 20s. Nevertheless, he was to “enter and have all the said Landes and goodes Immediatlye after my decease to fynde hym to Scoolle”. In this context this term clearly meant to provide for his higher education, perhaps at an Inn of Court or university. In other contexts the term could also mean primary education. John Cowper was one of the 10 jurors for the 1556 Hitchin manor court survey. But as for Michell and his wife, to have had 8 children, the first 3 aged 20 and over in 1556, means that they had been married by 1534 at the latest, and Elizabeth born by c 1516.
3. William Audley in his Will of 1591 made bequests to Richard Cowper, son of his sister Cooper and to the children of his sister Agnes.37 Similarly, Robert Papworth in his Will of 1620 made bequests to his sister Elizabeth Cooper and to John Williams and Anne Williams the children of his sister Agnes.
4. This William Audley and Robert Papworth were half-brothers and both called Elizabeth Cooper ‘sister’. They were both sons of Joan and her same-named husbands. Joan’s first husband had been Robert Papworth, brother of William (d 1566 and Michell Cowper’s co-executor). This Robert had died by 16 May 1547. Joan’s second husband, William Audley, died 1574. Joan herself died 1582, and in her Will made bequests—among others–to her daughters Elizabeth Cooper and Agnes Williams.
5. As calculated above, Elizabeth, the wife and co-executor of Michell Cowper (d 1556), would have been born at the latest c 1516, so she couldn’t have been the Elizabeth Cooper, daughter of Joan Audlye, and sister of Robert Papworth still alive in 1620. Rather, this later Elizabeth’s husband Cooper might have been the 2nd youngest son of Michell and Elizabeth [snr] Cowper of Henlow, and married her in Hitchin in 1573: “The same daie [18 Janurye 1572/3] were maried Richard Cooper & Elizabeh Awdly”.38 Cooper was a common name and although this connection looks likely, it’s not definite. The point here, however, is that Elizabeth Cooper, wife of Michell, wasn’t the Elizabeth Cooper, daughter of Joan Audlye.
6. Furthermore, William Papworth (d 1566 and Michell Cowper’s co-executor) appointed as his co-overseer “my brother in lawe William Cowpare of London”. Since Michell Cowper called William Papworth his brother-in-law and William Papworth called William Cowpar his brother-in-law, it looks likely that Michell and William Cowper were brothers and their sister married William Papworth. The fact that William Papworth called his other overseer George Underwoode “my sonne in lawe”, whom we know was his ‘son-in-law’ in today’s sense, makes it even more likely that the terms ‘brother-in-law’ used here by both Michell Cowper and William Papworth also meant what they do today.
7. The Elizabeth Cooper [junior] mentioned above—daughter of Joan Audlye and sister of Robert Papworth (d 1620) couldn’t also have been a sister of William Papworth of the previous generation (d 1566), as his sister Elizabeth had married John Monke by 1540, and bore him 7 children.
8. We come to the conclusion that William Papworth (d 1576 and Michell Cowper’s co-executor) was married to a sister of Michell and William Cowper. In his Will William Papworth (d 1576) mentioned his wife Letice. We suggest therefore that she was Letice Cowper.
9. With the evidence thus far we can construct the following chart: [To follow]
10. This Cowper family was researched by Ward in 1985, and his findings confirmed that Letice was a sister of Michell and William and that their father was Michael Cowper of Henlow, died 1540, a well-to-do Yeoman, and his father was John Cooper of Arlesey, died 1501 or 2, as follows:
1540: Will of Michael Cowper of Henlow, written 9 Feb 1539/40.39 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Margret, deceased.
2. To be buried in Henlow churchyard beside his wife Margret.
· to sons Michael, William (under age), Edmund, and Walter, and daughters Mary, Lettes, and (under age) Elizabeth, Alice, Barbara, and Winifred.
· to daughters Mare and Lettes to have £10 each in ready money at Michaelmas next, to be paid out of the profit arising from the sale of the wool from testator’s sheep, and from the money which son Michael has in hand. Daughters Mare and Lettes to have 40 sheep and 20 lambs each, which are to be handed over as soon as they have been shorn. Also each to have a milch cow and a bullock.
· to daughter Lettes testator’s wife’s best gown, and to daughter Mare the second gown. To testator’s sister Emery his wife’s third gown.
· to various others, including brother-in-law Edmund Emerre, and servants.
4. Residue equally between his children, especially among the youngest for their bringing up.
5. Executors: Son Michael Cowper and brother-in-law Edmund Emery.
6. Overseers: None.
7. Witnesses: Symon Tayler his ghostly father, Edmund Emmery, Robert Oste, Alys wife of Richard Fyssher of Clyfton, Lettes Cowper, with others.
1. Mare and Lettes were the oldest unmarried daughters, come of age but unmarried in 1540. One daughter was married to Edmund Emmery. Daughters Elzabeth, Alys and Barbery were not yet of age in 1540, and daughter Wenofred was probably an infant, since she had a nurse. Lettes may have been the oldest daughter, since she was left Michael’s wife’s best gown, and Mare the second gown and sister Emery the third. Be that as it may, Lettes also appears to have been one of the witnesses to the Will; no others of her name are recorded on Ward’s ‘Tree of Cowper of Arlesey and Henlow’.40
2. Ward cited the following deeds and charters to show that the father of this elder Michael (d 1540) was John Cooper:41
· Michael Cooper owned a parcel of land called “Hoyes mese” in Arlesey which had been quitclaimed to him by his brother Thomas Cooper of Arlesey, yeoman, on 3 October 1514. The charter refers to Thomas as son and heir of John Cowper, lately deceased, and to Michael as second son of John.
Ward concluded that Michael’s father John was the John Cooper of Arlesey, Bedfordshire, whose Will, written 21 Jul 1501, mentioned wife Joan and son Thomas as executors, and John Fyssher supervisor.42
3. Ward previously cited the following 4 deeds and charters to prove the connection between the younger Michael (d 1556) and the elder Michael (d 1540):43
1. Michael Cooper of Henlow, Yeoman, bought a close called “le Rose-wyke” in Arlesey from John Lorynge of Arlesey 16 February 1552/3.
2. This parcel had previously been held jointly by William Lorynge (father of John), Nicholas Wylbon, and Michael Cooper (father of Michael), who had bought it from William Abbot of Woburn Chapel, co. Bedford on 10 October 1509.
3. Michael Cooper of Arlesey, gent., purchased a message in an Arlesey called “Poyntelles” from Jasper Smyth of Hitchin. co. Hertford for £85 on 19 April 1556.
4. This tract had been owned by the father and grandfather of the seller, both named John Smith. John Cooper, son of the younger Michael Cooper, sold both tracts to John Luke of Cople, co. Bedford on 17 July 1565.
1557: Will of William Hubbard of Hitchin, Yeoman, written 12 May 1557.44 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in Hitchin Parish Church.
· to John Papworthe “my blake gowne and my marbell coate gardid with velvytte”.
· to brother John and sister and their children.
· to daughter Elizabeth “all my lands and tenements with thappurtenaunces lying in the parishis of Benyngtone and Walcorne” when she marries or reaches lawful age, plus other bequests.
· to various others.
4. Residue to wife Alice.
5. Executors: Brother John Hubberd and brother-in-law William Hawis.
6. Overseers: Wife Alice and Thomas Parishe gentleman.
7. Witnesses: Thomas Kent, Simon Waren, Thomas Chamber, Thomas Humberstone, with others.
1. The bequest to John Papworthe suggests he was a friend of William Hubbard. For other records of John, see here.
1558-1603: Pleadings. Plaintiff: William Papworth. Defendant: Thomas Burman. Subject: To protect mortgage. A parcel of land in the parish of Hitchin, Hertfordshire conveyed by defendant Thomas Burman to plaintiff William Papworth in fee, by way of mortgage.45 Comment: The date range in the catalogue is wide, so it could refer to either William Papworth (d 1566) or the later William recorded in the two Burman/Papworth records of 1599 and 1601 below. No other William Papworths of Hitchin are known 1558-1599.
1558: Will of Elizabeth Fryday, Widow, written 14 Aug 1558.46 Summary of the Will:
1. Widow, former husband’s name not mentioned.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin “nyghe to my husbonde”.
· to “Thomas Graveley my tenement that William Yelborne to dwell in in Hichyne nexte to William Awdleye”.
· to “John Graveleye my tenement that I do dwell in in Hichyne … with all other lands fre and copie and dooles”.
· to Joone Olivere £20 and other items.
· to Elizabeth Olivere £6 13s 4d at marriage or 20 years of age, and other items.
· Items or money to Elizabeth Raven, Mastris Anne Luke, Thomas Graveley, Elsabeth Graveley, George Graveley, Elsabeth Trustram, Luce Slowe, William Awdleye.
· “I will that Thomas Graveleye shall sett of £5 to John Graveley of his grantfathers will in consideracion of that I have gevene a housse that my husbonde bought of Thomas Perryshe”.
4. Residue to Executor.
5. Executor: John Graveleye.
6. Overseers: Laurence Trustram and John Papworth.
7. Witnesses: William Awdley, John Reve, Robert Papworth, William Henshewe, John Parrishe, Hughe Masere, with others.
1. That Elizabeth bequeathed all her real estate to Thomas and John Graveley and appointed the latter her sole executor, suggests that one or both of Thomas and John were Elizabeth’s brothers and she was born a Graveley. This is further supported by her reference to their grandfather in her Will. In his Will of 1532, George Graveley left his real estate to his sons Thomas and John, perhaps the same two mentioned here by Elizabeth in her Will. George mentioned a daughter Johane, but not Elizabeth, however. George also called John Fridaye his father-in-law, probably meaning that George’s wife Agnes was formerly a Fryday. So perhaps Elizabeth’s relationship to the Graveleys was through her husband.
2. Joone Olivere and Thomas and John Graveley were also left bequests by Robert Snedalle in 1545, whose Will shows that Joan Olivere—or at least her mother—was a Graveley.
1558: Will of John Monke of Hitchin, Draper, written 6 Oct 1558.47 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Elizabeth, deceased.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin.
· to son William John’s family house in Bancroft street.
· to executor the profits of the house to the use of son William “till my sonne cumys to the age of 21 yeres”.
· to son Raffe and daughters Letice, Elene, Joone, Agnes, Elizabeth and Alice, items of personal estate.
· No bequests to anyone else, except if all his children should die before marriage or lawful age then he willed all the goods and lands to remain to the children of William Papworth.
4. Residue to “my childrene which I had by Elizabethe my wiff”.
5. Executor: “William Papworth my brother”.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Thomas Kent, Richard Baldocke, Richarde Chamber, John Gaddisden, John Dardes, with others.
1. John clearly had a very close relationship to his ‘brother’ William Papworth. William was in fact John’s wife’s brother, his brother-in-law.
2. John’s wife Elizabeth had died by Oct 1558. John mentioned “my doughteres that I had by Elizabeth late my wiff”. She was a daughter of Edmund Papworth, d 1540.
3. Son William was under 21, therefore born after Oct 1537.
4. It appears by the way John referred thrice to “my childrene which I had by Elizabethe my wiff”, and Elizabeth’s mother referred to “the 7 childrene of John Moonke which he hade by my doughter Elizabeth his wiff” that Elizabeth may not have been John’s first wife. John mentioned sons William and Raffe before “my doughteres that I had by Elizabeth late my wiff”, six in order: Letice, Elene, Joone, Agnes, Elizabeth and Alice. Mentioning the sons first may simply have been because they were bequeathed real estate, but since Elizabeth’s mother referred in 1560 to 7 children, unless one had died in the meantime, it appears that one of the sons, presumably the eldest William, may have been from a former wife of John. John and Elizabeth, however, were married by Nov 1540 (her father’s Will), so perhaps John also fathered an illegitimate child or children.
1558: Will of Thomas Kent of Hitchin, Yeoman, written 14 Oct 1558.48 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Alice.
2. To be buried in St Andrews church, Hitchin.
· “unto Ales my wif one hunderith pounds which she brought unto me at the daye of her mariage and one hunderith pounde which I do give her as yt will appeare by one paier of Indentures of Covenauntes betwene us / Iteme I gyve unto the saied Alice my wif bothe my Ferme of Hendloo and the parsonage to the same Ferme which Thomas Farr dwellethe in for terme of her lif / And also I gyve unto my saied wif all suche goodes and Catalle as she broughte unto me at the day of mariage”
· “unto John Kent my sonne all my copye lande lying and being within the filds and paryshe of Hendloo in the Countie of Bedford to hyme and to his heires for ever after the custome and manner of the same lordshipp / Iteme I give unto my saied sonne John Kent one pece of Copylande called Bentchloo pece and alle the other arrable land therunto belonging / lying and being within the Feilds and parrysh of Hytchyne”.
· “unto my sonne John Kent the reversion of my Ferme and personage of Hendlowe after the deceasse of Alice my wif”.
4. Residue to “my childerne thene being alyve to be equally parted and devyded betwene theyme”.
5. Executor: son John.
6. Overseer: Edward Hurst.
7. Witnesses: John Gaddesden / Rauf Myddelton and Thomas Serle with others.
1. Clearly, Alice wasn’t Thomas’ first wife, and he was Alice’s second husband.
2. Hendloo was presumably Henlow, c 6 miles N of Hitchin.
3. The Hitchin Manorial Survey of 1556 recorded Thomas holding several freehold and copyhold properties.
1559 7 Jun: Indenture to lead to uses of a recovery. John Gravelye of Hitchin to William Kent and John Papworth to use of Joan Tristam. Messuage with appurtenances etc, formerly of Elizabeth Fryday. Witnesses: Wm. Audeley, John Perles, Jemeys [James] Shave, Thomas Shepherd.49
1559: Will of John Lucas of Hitchin, Maltman, written 10 Sep 1559.50 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of “wiff latelie decessde”, unnamed.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin.
· to sons Richard and John his real estate.
· to daughters Amye, Elsabeth and Mary £6 13s 4d each.
· to Avis Drapere, daughter of Robert Drapere £5.
4. Residue to “geve towards the brynging up of my childrene”.
5. Executors: Richarde Lucas, John Papworthe and Thomas Frenche.
6. Overseer: George Laurence.
7. Witnesses: John Makinge, Gilbert Colyne, Richard Astone, Joone Laurence, Elizabeth Chamberleyne, Raffe Myles, with others.
1. For other mentions of John Papworthe, see here.
1559: William Papworth was mentioned in a Maydencroft Manor Court hearing of 1571 regarding a case of fraud. A conversation with William soon after Ralph Radcliffe’s death in 1559 was recounted by Ralph’s widow:51Read more
“The Maydencroft manor court usually met only once a year or less, but in early 1571 it met every month to decide whether Ralph Radcliffe of Hitchin Priory could be admitted to a house and four acres of land in the Manor of Maydencroft. He claimed that this property had been fraudulently acquired from his father’s estate by a man named Leonard Day. Ralph’s father, who was also called Ralph … had died in 1559. [In 1571 Ralph’s mother] Elizabeth, now Elizabeth Norton, had to give evidence as to what had happened when her first husband died. … [She] told the manor court: ‘Leonard Daye came to her fraudulently & said if she would say her husband Mr Radcliffe did surrender this aforesaid house & four acres of land he would release such debts as were owing to him or otherwise he would trouble her. For fear whereof she said to William Papworth [that her husband had surrendered the copyhold] which she said was untrue but that she meant that after Six pound [was] paid of the profits thereof the heir should enjoy the same for she sayeth that Mr Radcliffe never meant to depart with the same.’
In the name of god Amen The xii day of February in the yere of oure lord god a M CCCCC lix I Alice Kent widowe of Hichyne the late wiff of Thomas Kent decessde beinge sicke of body and parfitte of remembraunce laude and prays to allmyghtie god my savyoure do make and ordeyne this my last will and testament in manere and forme folowynge First I do bequeithe my soulle to almyghtie god to oure blissde lady seynt mary and all the holie company of heven to be buryede in the church yarde of seynt Andrewe of Hichyne at the West dore nyghe to my husbonde Edmunde Papworthe decessde Item I geve to the mother churche of Lincoln iid Item to the highe aultere of Hichyne for tithes forgottun xiid Item I geve to the vii childrene of John Moonke which he hade by my doughter Elizabeth his wiff xiii libra vis viiid a peace to be paide to them hym severallye when they cume to the age of xxi yeres Provydide allways that yf eny of the vii childrene do departe out of the worlde or they cume to age then I will it shall remayne to William Papworthe childrene of his body laufully begottun Item I geve and bequeithe to Alice Papworthe the doughter of William Papworth my sonne xiii libra vis viiid to be paide to hir when she cumythe to laufull age Item I geve more to John Monke a fetherbede a payre of sheates a bolstare a cople of pillowebeares Item I geve to the poure people of Hichyne iii libra vis viiid to be gevene every christemasse vis viiid a yeare till the hole sume of iii libra vis viiid be fullie geven and endid Item I geve to the reparacion of Hichyne churche vis viiid Item I geve Robert Papworth my sonnys sonne a silver spone All the residue of my goodes dettes not biquethde my body brought honestlye to the grounde I do geve to William Papworth my sonne whom I do make hole and fethfull executor he to bestowe it as he thinkithe good and John Papworth my brother to be my overseare to see my will fulfillide and he for to have for his payns xiiis iiiid Also I geve to all his childrene iiis iiiid a peace Theis men berynge witnesse of this my last will and testamente Raffe Myddiltone Thomas Robbisone John Hicchynsone John Gaddisden John Papworth Richard Blocke with other moo.
Summary of the Will:
1. Late wife of Thomas Kent deceased, previously wife of Edmunde Papworthe deceased.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin, at the West door near to my husband Edmund Papworthe deceased.
· to the 7 children of John Moonke which he had by my daughter Elizabeth his wife £7 6s 8d each when they reach 21 years. If any die beforehand then their share to remain to William Papworthe’s children.
· to Alice Papworthe the daughter of William Papworth my son £13 6s 8d when she comes to lawful age.
· to John Monke a fetherbede a payne payre of sheates a bolstare a cople of pillowebeares
· to Robert Papworth my son’s son a silver spoon.
4. Residue to son William.
5. Executor: Son William.
6. Overseer: John Papworth my brother.
7. Witnesses: Raffe Myddilton, Thomas Robbison, John Hicchynson, John Gaddisden, John Papworth, Richard Blocke, with others.
1. Her husband Thomas Kent’s Will was proved 7 May 1559. Alice’s burial wish shows that her first husband was Edmund Papworthe, whose Will was proved 11 Mar 1541. This is confirmed by her bequests to her children, also mentioned by Edmund in his Will.
2. Alice mentioned only 2 of her children: Elizabeth and William. Elizabeth, wife of John Monke, had died but William was still alive. He died 1566. Alice’s grandson Robert Papworth (d 1620) was son of her son Robert who had died 1546-7. She didn’t mention her other known children Alice and James, who were both alive 1540, but may have died by this time.
3. Alice’s bequest to her grand daughter Alice Papworthe, daughter of her son William, is the only named reference to her before the Will of her husband William Brokett of Hitchin, written 4 Sep 1563. In his Will William Brokett appointed Alice his wife executrix and “my Father in lawe William Papwurthe” co-overseer. This means that William Brokett and Alice Papwurthe married between the writing of the Wills of Alice Kent and William Brokett, that is between 12 Feb 1560 and 4 Sep 1563. We know they had two sons, the second baptized 28 Nov 1562, so they must have married between 12 Feb 1560 and at the latest mid 1561. In 1546, 14 years before Alice Kent’s Will, William Audeley had bequeathed 10s to each of the [unnamed] “2 doughters of William Papworth”, providing a latest birth date of early 1546 for the younger of those two. One of them must have been Alice, presumably born by 1544 at the latest—it’s unlikely she would have married under 16.
4. Alice Kent’s ‘brother’, her overseer John Papworth, was her brother-in-law—the brother of Edmund Papworth, Alice’s first husband. For a discussion, see here. Alice left 3s 4d “to all his childrene”.
5. In 1565 Alice’s son William Papworth made bequests to 3 of his own sons: Edmunde, Michill and John—the last two under 21—and to 3 daughters, all unmarried and under 20: Agnes, Martha, Elizabethe. But of all these children of William—most of whom will have been alive in 1560—Alice Kent only mentioned Alice, and made her a larger bequest than to the children of her deceased daughter Elizabeth. One could speculate that Alice Kent may have wished to leave her grand daughter Alice a sizeable bequest because of her impending marriage to William Brokett.
6. John Gaddesden and Rauf Myddelton had also witnessed her husband Thomas Kent’s Will.
1560: Will of Leonard Daye of Hitchin, written 12 Mar 1559/60 (2 Eliz).53 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Jone.
2. “my boddie be buried in Cristen buriall”.
· 4 copyholds in Hitchin that he had meanwhile surrendered into the hands of William Papworth to pay the lord the rent, one to William Wallen, two to his son Leonard, and one to his wife for life with remainder to son Leonard.
· to son Leonard 2 copyhold tenements in Stevenage.
· “to Griffin Fuller my fryse gowne, to William Daye my gowne faced with blacke lambe”, to Ellen Burr my sister 20s.
· to wife for life the house he dwells in and garden in the churchyard, with remainder to son Leonard.
· to son Leonard the house John Papworth dwells in and the two houses in Bucklersbury and the stall in the market place, when he reaches 21.
· Should both his sons die before reaching 21 then all the lands were to be sold and half the proceeds to be given to the poor of Hitchin and half to be divided equally amongst the children of James Prate and Thomas Prate, Andrew Prate, Ellen Burre, Alice Duckington, Burre’s wife of Brachewode green, Margaret Hewarde of Aston, and Agnes his sister.
· to John Papworth my violet cote and my fryse Coete.
4. Residue to wife Jone.
5. Executrix: Wife Jone.
6. Overseer: “my brother William Papworth“.
7. Witnesses: William Wallen, Griffith Fuller, William Papworth, Richard Braunsawe, John Papworth, Richard Page with others.
1. The term ‘brother’ for William Papworth obviously didn’t mean sibling, but either a brother-in-law or some other relationship. William is only known to have had 2 sisters, Elizabeth who married John Mounke, and Alice probably died 1540-60. William’s wife was formerly a Cowper, so perhaps a sister of Leonard Daye married a brother of hers. Perhaps one of Leonard’s parents married a sibling of William’s parents. Tracing Leonard Daye’s family might elucidate.
2. Leonard had two sons, both under 21, but named only Leonard.
3. The John Papworth who bequeathed 2 coats, lived in house owned by Leonard, and was a witness, were presumably one and the same man. For other records of John Papworth, see here.
1560: Will of Rawff Audlye of Hitchin Shoemaker, written 10 Sep 1560.54 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Joane.
2. To be buried in St Andrews churchyard, Hitchin.
· to 3 servants.
4. Residue to wife Joane.
5. Executrix: Wife Joane.
6. Overseer: Wylliam Papworth.
7. Witnesses: Richard Chamber, John Gaddysden. with others.
1562: William Papworthe, John Lawman, Richarde Feryane, with others, were witnesses to the Will of Nicholas Glasscote of Walsworth, Hitchin, Husbandman, written 13 Jun 1562.56 Bequests to wife, brother, mother, son and daughter—no obvious connection to Papworths.
1562: William Papworth purchased a messuage and land in Chalton in the parish of Hytchin from Geo. Frauncys and Eliz. his wife, John Slowe and Joan his wife, Jas. Cawdwell and Alice his wife, John Hawkyns and Agnes his wife and Mercy Wakeffelde.57
In the name of god Amen The x day of February in the yere of oure lord god a thowsande CCCCC lxiiii in the vi yere of the reigne of oure soverayne lady Elizabeth by the grace of god qwene of Englande Fraunce and Irelande Defendere of the feith &c Witnessth that I William Papworthe of Hichyne in the Countie of Hertford yeman beinge in good and perfette memorye laude and praice be gevene unto allmyghtie god my makere and redemare make and ordeyne this my last will and testament in manere and forme folowynge that is to unto First I bequeithe my soull unto allmyghtie god the fathere the sonne and the holie ghoste and my bodie to be buryede in the churche yurde of seynt Andrews in Hichyne aforseide Item I geve unto the poure mens boxe vis and viiid Item I geve unto Letice my wiff my howsse that I dwell in in Hichyne and also my howsse at Charleton with all the lande bothe fre and copie which I dide purchase of Laurence Wakefelde which copie lande I holde of the manere of Hichyne tymple and mayden crosse lyng an beinge within the feldes and parisshis of Hichyne and my seid wiff to have the profettes therof to bryng up my childerne with all and also to paye unto my childerne certeyne legacies which I have geven unto them And further I will that my seid wiff shall paye unto John Munkes childerne certeyne legacies geven unto them by the last will of ther father and also by the last will of Alice Kente the grandmother to be paid unto them according to the seid John and Alice last will and testament Item I will that any seide wiff shall have the occupying of all my seid howsss and landes boith fre and copie keping hir selff sole untill my sonnys cume to the age of xxi yeris olde Item I will that Edmunde my sonne shall have the howsse that I dwell in in Hychyne with my orchyarde and gardyne and vi acris of lande with longe hedge and v acrys lande at Chaulledell and vii acrys weate and xiii acrys lyinge and beynge within the feldes and parisshis of hichyne Item I geve unto my seid sonne ii silvere sponnys Providide also that the seid Edmunde shall not entere upone the seid howsse nor land nor no profitte therof duryng my wiffes widowhede but I will that my seid wiff shall pay to unto the seid Edmunde my sonne at the age of xxi yeres and so duryng the tyme of hir widowhede xls of laufull money yerelie unto suche tyme as she do fortune to mary and then I will my seid sonne shall entere upon my seide howsse and lande aforeseide according to the custome and manere to hym and to hys heyres for evere Item I geve unto my sonne Michill and his heyres my howsse at Charlton and all the copie lande that I dide purches and bye of Laurence Wakefelde whiche I doo holde of the manere of Temple and mayden crosse Item I geve unto my seid sonne Michill and his heyres one cloose of iii acrys which was of the bull lande and ii acrys of fre lande which was purchaside of Edwarde Masshe and ii silver sponys Item I will that my sonne Mychill shall entere upone my seid howsse and lande when he cumythe unto the age of xxi yeres which I have geven unto hym as aforesaide Item I geve unto John my sonne and his heyres xxxviii acrys of copie lande and iiii acris i rood of fre lande which I dide purchase of John Gaddisden lyinge and beinge within the feldes and parissh of Hichyne Item I geve unto my seid sonne John ii silvere sponys Item I will that my seid sonne John shall nat entere of the seid lande untill he cum unto the age of xxi yeres olde Item I geve to Agnes my doughtere xx libra in redye money and ii silvere sponys Item I geve unto Martha my doughtere xx libra in redy money and ii silvere sponys Item I geve unto Elizabethe my doughtere xx libra in redy money and ii silvere sponys to be paide to my seid doughterys at the age of xxti yeres or at the day of maryage by the handys of my executorys yf they so longe do lyve Item I will that yf enye of my sonnys dye bifore the age of xxi yeres that then I will the one to be the otheres heyre Item I geve to William Gaddisden one ewe lame Item I geve unto my ii men servauntes ii ewe lamys and to my mayde servauntes ii eve lamys to be paid unto them Immmediatlie after my dethe Item I geve unto William Brockette and Edwarde Brokett to either of them xxs to be paid unto them at the age of xxi yeres by my executorys the resedue of all my goodis and catalles aswell moveablis as unmoveablis unbequethide my dettes paide and my legacies falfillide and my bodie honestlie buryed I geve unto Letice my wiff whom I make and ordeyne to be my true and laufull executrice justlie and trulie to use the same even as she will answere before god at the day of Juggmente Item I will that my brother in lawe William Cowpare of Londone and George Underwoode my sonne in lawe be my overseeres of this my last will and testament Theis beinge witnesss William Awdeley John Trustram the eldere John Papworthe the eldere Cuthberte Raven Clement Athertone and John Gaddisden and Roberte Harteryde with othere
Summary of the Will:
· to his wife Letice the family home in Hitchin and the house at Charleton with various freehold and copyhold lands until their sons reached 21 and so long as she didn’t remarry.
· Letice to pay legacies given to the children of John Munke according to the Wills of John Munke and of Alice Kente the grandmother.
· to son Edmunde during Letice’s widowhood “the howsse that I dwell in in Hychyne with my orchyarde and gardyne and 6 acris of lande with longe hedge and 5 acrys lande at Chaulledell and 7 acrys weate and xiii acrys lyinge and beynge within the feldes and parisshis of hichyne”.
· to son Michill “my howsse at Charlton and all the copie lande that I dide purches and bye of Laurence Wakefelde whiche I doo holde of the manere of Temple and mayden crosse. Also one cloose of 3 acrys which was of the bull lande and 2 acrys of fre lande which was purchaside of Edwarde Masshe.”
· to son John “38 acrys of copie lande and 4 acris 1 rood of fre lande which I dide purchase of John Gaddisden lyinge and beinge within the feldes and parissh of Hichyne.”
· to each of his 3 unmarried daughters under 20: Agnes, Martha and Elizabethe £20 and 2 silver spoons.
· to William Gaddisden one ewe lamb, and to each of his 2 men servants and maidservants 2 ewe lambs.
· to William Brockette and Edwarde Brokett each 20s when the yreach 21.
4. Residue to wife Letice.
5. Executrix: Wife Letice.
6. Overseers: “my brother in lawe William Cowpare of Londone and George Underwoode my sonne in lawe”.
7. Witnesses: William Awdeley, John Trustram the eldere, John Papworthe the eldere, Cuthberte Raven, Clement Athertone, John Gaddisden, Roberte Harteryde, with others.
1. The Hitchin Parish Register recorded the burial of a William Papworth on 23 Jun 1566, the same day Edward Townesend was baptized:59
It must have been the burial of the William of this 1565 Will, written and proved shortly before and after the burial—10 Feb 1564/5 and 23 Jan 1567/8. After the single record in 1520 of the William Papworth son of William (d 1520) the 1540 record of the William Papworth son of Edmunde (d 1540) was the next William Papworth recorded in Hitchin. Thereafter, this later William was mentioned regularly through the 1540s, 50s and early 60s, and was clearly a prominent member of the Hitchin community. He is recorded in many Wills as legatee, executor, overseer or witness, and in land records like the Hitchin Manorial Survey of 1556, for which he was one of the jurors. Had there been two adult William Papworths in Hitchin during this time, some method of distinguishing them would have been used. But the records are all of William Papworth, undifferentiated.
2. When was William born? The first record found of him is in his father Edmund’s Will of 1540, when he was the first named of 5 children, three of them sons all of an age to inherit land. William was therefore well into his 20s in 1540, and born by 1515 at the latest. Working back from his own children later, we know from a bequest of Nov 1545 that William and his wife had 2 children by then. In another bequest of 1546, where they were referred to as two daughters. One of those two must have been Alice, who 14 years later, in her grandmother Alice Kent’s Will of Feb 1560 was still not of ‘lawful age’, but who went on to marry by mid 1561 at the latest. Her grandmother perhaps singled Alice out specifically for a bequest because of her impending marriage to William Brokett. Assuming Alice was 16 at marriage, she would have been born by mid 1545 at the latest, especially if she was the elder of the 2 daughters. By these calculations William must have married her mother Letice by mid to late 1544. Brides were often pregnant walking down the aisle. The estimated average age of 26½ at first marriage for a male in the 2nd half of the 16th C would place his birth around 1517, and assuming he was a couple of years over the average, a 1515 birth for William is possible, as suggested above.60
3. The Will shows that William’s wife was called Letice, and we can deduce from a Will of 1556 that she had been born a Cowper. In her father’s Will of Feb 1540 Lettis had come of age but was still unmarried. So they would have married between early 1540 and mid 1544, as just suggested above. William left her the family home in Hitchin and the house at Charleton with other lands so long as she stayed unmarried and until their sons reached 21. She didn’t apparently marry again. After William’s death, Leticia Papworthe, Widow, was assessed in 1557 at 6s for £6 in goods:61
She was assessed again likewise in 1576, but not in 1588. The Hitchin Parish Register recorded the burial of Lettis Papworth on 11 Jul 1592, which was probably her.
4. William’s 3 sons—Edmund, Michael and John—were all under 21 in 1565, so born after 1544. All 3 daughters mentioned—Agnes, Martha and Elizabethe—were under 20, so born after 1545. These couldn’t therefore have been the daughters mentioned in the 1545 bequest, one of whom must have been Alice, as discussed above. Perhaps the other died before 1565.
5. William left son Edmunde the family home in Hitchin and the orchard and garden his own father had left him, plus other land in Chaulledell and Hitchin, but not during Letice’s widowhood, she paying him instead 40s annually once he reached 21. Edmund, who later lived in Charleton, apparently passed most of this property on to his wife Elizabeth and elder son William in his own Will of 1607, but apart from the orchard they were specified by the current tenants rather than their locations.
Comment: Chaulledell was the Chalk Dell, “a communal chalk pit which all the tenants of the manor could use. It has now been filled in and forms an open grassy area on Oughtonhead Way near the junction with Victoria Road.”62
6. William left son Michill his house at Charlton, all his copyhold land in the manors of Temple Dinsley and Maydencroft, plus 5 other acres, of which 3 were “of the bull lande”.
Comment: The manors of Temple Dinsley and Maydencroft were in Ippollitts parish. “I think that the Bull land must have one time been the holding associated with the house called The Bull which was on the corner of Bridge Street and Queen Street (now demolished).63 Son Michill was later no doubt the head of the only Michael Papworth household recorded in the Hitchin Parish Register 1586-1604. There was a high infant mortality rate in the household, but son Christopher and 3 daughters survived to adulthood and married. Michael’s wife Jane died 1615, and Michael was buried 22 Nov 1624. The 1624 Will of Michaell Papworth of Chaulton, Yeoman, was proved 22 Dec 1624 by son Christopher.
7. William left son John 38 acres of copyhold land and 4 acres 1 rood freehold in Hitchin. Was he the John who was buried 12 Feb 1584? The 1600 Will of John Papworth of Preston was of a different John.
9. One of William’s overseers, his “brother in law William Cowpare of Londone” was the brother of Michell Cowper of Henlow (d 1556) “brother in Lawe [of] Willyam Papworthe”.
10. William’s other overseer was “sonne in law” George Underwood. George was a well-to-do Yeoman from Weston, a village and parish c 5 m E of Hitchin. As discussed above, one of William’s daughters, probably the eldest, was Alice. She went unmentioned in his Will, but not her husband nor her two sons by her former husband. This Alice had married firstly William Brokett of Hitchin with whom she had two sons William and Edwarde—each left 20s here by William Papworth—and secondly on 21 Nov 1563 this George Underwood of Weston:64
The couple went on to have 10 children, the first baptized 1 Apr 1565 in Hitchin, and the others in Weston.
11. The epithet ‘the elder’ for the witness John Papworthe would have distinguished him from William’s own son John. Was he the brother of Edmund (d 1540), overseer of Alice Kent’s Will of 1560?
12. This, along with previous evidence gives rise to the following chart: [To follow]
1566: Robert Papworth sold a messuage in Hitchyn to Anthony Stibbynge gent, and Wm. Awdeley.65
1566: John and Elizabeth Papworth his wife and Tho. Graveley and Joan his wife sold two messuages in Hitcham [sic] to Rich. Cowper.66
These records are not systematic. Subsidies weren’t raised at regular intervals, but if and when the King needed funds for a particular purpose, like waging war. Each subsidy was different and aimed at different levels of wealth, and individuals would naturally try to minimise their assessments or evade tax altogether. Furthermore, some returns have since been lost and others damaged. The 1524 subsidy, for instance, targeted a much larger constituency than later ones, and the Hitchin return recorded hundreds of names in small writing on two sides of a large parchment, but parts of it are now faded and damaged and illegible. No Papworths have been found in the legible parts, but that can’t be taken to mean that none were assessed in Hitchin in 1524.
Nonetheless, where they exist and are legible, tax records are valuable snapshots of a person’s declared wealth in time, and indeed of whole communities, and can be additional evidence for individuals, as here with the Papworths. If a woman was recorded, she would have been a Widow, mostly designated as such. With men the returns for Hitchin and Hertfordshire usually indicated if he was a Knight or an Esquire, but not a Gentleman or a Yeoman. This is a pity for the Papworths, as it would have been useful to know if a certain William or Robert, for instance, was a Gentleman or not. Finally, an individual was normally assessed at their place of highest value rather than simply their place of residence. The two would normally have been the same. but this means that because someone was assessed in Hitchin it doesn’t necessarily mean they lived there, and conversely if they were assessed elsewhere it doesn’t mean they didn’t often live in Hitchin.
After the 1524-5 subsidies the next were not till the 1540s. They show 1 household in 1541, 1 in 1545, 1 in 1545-52, 3 in 1556 and 3 in 1557:
1541: Alice Papworth Widow was assessed at 10s for £20 in goods.67 Comment: Alice was no doubt the mother of William Papworth assessed in 1545-52, and Widow of Edmund (d 1540).
1545: William Papworthe was assessed at 3s 4d.68
1546: No Papworths were among the 27 assessed.69
1549-52: William Papworthe was assessed at 15s for £15 in goods.70
1556: Survey of the manor of Hitchin 1556Read more
John Papworthe’s property prior to 155671
The snip above shows that Lawrence Trustram’s freehold 3 burgages in bancroftstreate consisted of 1½ burgages, quit rent 21d, and another 1½ burgages formerly John Papworthe’s, quit rent 15d, total 3s.
Present day location:72 “John Papworth’s 1½ burgages held by Laurence Tristram in 1556 were back in the ownership of Robert Papworth by 1591. Robert Papworth’s house in Bancroft is on the site of nos 32-33 Bancroft, and John Papworth’s of 34 Bancroft. I think these were probably the houses at Capswell left by William Papworth to his sons John and William in 1520.”
James Papworthe’s property 155673
The snip above shows that James Papworthe’s copyholdings in 1556 comprised:
· a messuage with appurtenances at portemill quit rent 2s 8d
· a dole of about 7½ acres and 2½ acres of meadow in berefeld Welshemerscrofte and oueralton late Richard Awdeley’s quit rent 8s.
In 1540 Edmund Papworth bequeathed these two properties to “Jamys my sonne”. In 1591 a house at Portmill “late James Papworth the innocent” was held by Edward Papworth quit rent 16d. James wasn’t recorded holding any freehold property.
Robert Papworth’s property 155674
The snip above shows that Robert Papworth’s freeholdings comprised:
· a burgage opposite the Bull formerly Burgeses quit rent 14d
· a tenement in Bancroft streate formerly William Parys, quit rent 3½d
Present day locations:75 “The Bull House stood at the corner of what is now Bridge Street and Queen Street and on the site of Robert Papworth’s burgage is now the Lord Lister Hotel. This is on the site of Isaac Brown’s academy where Joseph Lister went to school. Robert Papworth’s house in Bancroft is on the site of nos 32-33 Bancroft which is a timber framed Wealden house. It remained in Papworth ownership until the mid 18th century. Next door at 34 Bancroft was John Papworth’s 1½ burgages held by Laurence Tristram in 1556 but back in the ownership of Robert Papworth by 1591. I think these were probably the houses at Capswell left by William Papworth to his sons John and William in 1520.”
The snip above shows that Robert Papworth’s copyholdings in 1591 comprised a croft lying at the maltmyll and about 14 acres of land called Wymingham, quit rent 3s 8d.
William Papworthe’s property 155676
This William was most probably the son mentioned in William Papworth’s Will of 1520.
The snip above shows that William Papworth’s freeholdings comprised a house next to le Swanne, quit rent 6s, and a tenement adjoining it formerly Frauncis, quit rent 12¾d, total 7s ¾d.
The snip above shows that William Papworth’s copyholdings—with quit rents following each item—comprised:
· 5 acres of land at Chalke pittes, quit rent 2s.
· 6 acres next to the way leading from Hitchin to Maydencroft with pertinances, formerly Thomas Fletewood’s, quit rent 2s 4d
· A garden next to the churchyard, quit rent 2s 8d
· A stallage in Hitchin market place to the south of John Smythe’s and the north of Edward Broket gent’s, quit rent 8d
· 20 acres of land lying in separate parcels in the fields of Hitchin, quit rent 5s
By 1591, apart from the stallage, all these properties were held by Edward Papworth, presumably a son of William.
Present day locations:77 Barclays Bank and the adjoining property to the south, 4 High Street, now stand on the site of William Papworth’s houses. The garden became an extension to the churchyard in 1809.
Edmond Papworth’s debt to William Parrys is mentioned in his Will.
This William was most probably the son mentioned in William Brockett’s Will of 1520.
1567: James Papworthe was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.78
1567: John Papworthe was assessed at 16d for 20s in land.79
1567: Leticia Papworthe Widow was assessed at 6s for £6 in goods.80 Comment: The subsidy was granted by Parliament 18 Dec 1566 and the assessment carried out Feb 23 1567. Husband William had been buried 23 Jun 1566.
The earliest Hitchin Parish Record dates from 156281 and within 25 years 5 marriages, 11 baptisms and 3 burials were recorded. The entries point to at least 5 Papworth households in mid 16th C Hitchin.82Read more
1565 Sep: “The 24 daie were maryed Jeames Papworth & Winifred Kent”
1565 Nov: “The 9 daie was buryed John Papworth”
1566 Jun: “The same (23) daie was buryed Will’m Papworth“..
1566 Sep: “The 11 daie were maryed Hewe Mother & Joane Papworth“83
1566 Sep: “The 22 daie was baptized the daughter of James Papworth“
Conclusions: [To follow]
Following are the Papworth records 1568-99 for Hitchin (and Ippollitts) gathered from various sources:Read more
Mainly from 2 catalogues:
1. TNA online catalogue.84
2. The National Register of Archives digitisation project NRA 308, digitised by TNA.85 NRA 308 comprises miscellaneous deeds and papers relating to Hitchin and district, deposited by the late R L Hine, and subsequently converted to a gift by his Widow, Mrs Florence Hine.86 Some minor records of a Papworth simply being a witness to a deed have been omitted. Plus miscellaneous references in published works, like Howlett 2000 and 2012.
1574: Will of William Audley of Hitchin, written 10 Sep 1574.87 “Januarye 1574/5 The 20 daye was buried William Awdlye”.88 William was with little doubt the defendant in a 1544 suit and was the only son of William (d 1547) and the 2nd husband of Joan Audlye (d 1582), whose first husband was Robert Papworth (d by 1547).
1581: Will of Stephen Foxe of Hitchin, Gent, written 2 Aug 1582 [?].89 Bequest to “to John Papworth my second gowne”.
1. Widow first of Robert Papworth (d by 1546) and second William Audelye (d 1574).
2. To be buried in Hitchin Churchyard.
3. Bequests: Joan made bequests to the following children in the following order:
· to daughter Joan Audlye many household and clothing items and 20s a year for 10 years “oute of those landes which herevnder I haue geuen & bequethed to William my sonne”.
· to son John Audlye (under 22) various household items and animals and “one longe table & frame that standeth at the signe of the Cocke in Hitchin”, some unspecified land, and King’s Pound Close once aged 22.
· to daughter Agnes Williams, and her children James and Joan.
· to daughter Elizabeth Cooper and her children.
· to son Robert Papworth £6 13 4d, and children 10s each, and to his son William a coffer. Robert was also to have King’s Pound Close until son John’s age of 22.
· to son William Audlye “the lands bought by my last husband William Audlye and me of James Tidye of Dunstable”, and land in Chorlton Hitchin.
4. Residue to Son William Audlye.
5. Executor: Son William Audlye.
6. Overseers: Son Robert Papworth and friend Mr Thomas Parrys.
7. Witnesses: Thomas Parrys, Michell Longe, Thomas Saye publc notary, Richard Cooper, William Audlye, John Audlye and Robert Venables, with others.
1. Joan Audlye’s Will makes it clear that her last husband, the father of their son William, had been William Audelye, who had died 1574. The 1591 Will of their son William Awdely of Warden, Bedfordshire,92 left bequests to sisters Agnes, Elizabeth Cooper and Joane and their children, and to “Richard Cowper sonne of my sister Cooper”. Both Agnes [Williams] and Elizabeth were mentioned here as Joan’s daughters in her Will.
2. Joan’s Will also proves that her son Robert Papworth was son of Robert (d by 1546-7) son of Edmund (d 1540). According to her Will, Joan’s son Robert was father of William Papworth and her daughters were Agnes Williams and Elizabeth Cooper. Robert Papworth’s Will of 1620 mentioned his son William, his sister Elizabeth Cooper, and John Williams and Anne Williams the children of his sister Agnes deceased. A Chancery suit dated 1544-7 showed that Joan’s first husband had been Robert Papworth deceased, and he was a son of Edmund (d 1540).
3. William and Joan Audley’s son John was under 22. His son Hugh Awdley was plaintiff in a 1603-25 claim against William Papworth and others “under the will of the deceased Joan, the plaintiff’s grandmother to messuages, etc near Hitchin.93
4. As noted above, both Joan’s son William Audeley and his half-brother Robert Papworth in their Wills had referred to “sisters” Cooper and Agnes. So whether they were children of Joan’s first or second marriage is unclear. Reade wasn’t aware of Robert Papworth’s Will of 1620 and assigned both sisters as daughters of Joan and William Audeley rather than of her previous husband Robert Papworth. The relevance here concerns the term ‘sister’ and that each referred to their sisters Cooper and Agnes whether they were half or step sisters.
5. Joan’s daughter Elizabeth’s husband Cooper could have been the 2nd youngest son of Michell Cowper of Henlow, Bedfordshire, who died 1556. The Elizabeth Awdly who married Richard Cooper was no doubt her: “The same daie [18 Janurye 1572/3] were maried Richard Cooper & Elizabeth Awdly”.94 Both Joan’s sons Robert Papworth and William Audeley referred to her as ‘sister’, so Elizabeth may have been daughter of either of Joan’s husbands. That she married as Awdly may only have been because her mother married again when she was a child and she took on the Audley name.
6. Overseers: son Robert Papworth and Mr Thomas Parrys. The latter is unlikely to have been the Thomas Parrys appointed overseer of the Will of Joan’s father-in-law William Audeley in 1546, 36 years previously.
7. The details above enables the following chart to be drawn: [To follow]
1584 8 Oct: Copy of court roll quotes (1) Surrender of Thomas Frydaye to use of Edmund Papworthe: (2) Surrender of John Dardes to use of Robert Papworthe; (3) Surrender of Thomas Parris to use of Robert Papworthe. (4) admission of Robert Papworth junior. (1) 14 acres called Wyllinghams; (2) 14 acres called Willingehams next the Malt mill pond; (3) Croft next the Malt mill and 14 acres.95
1593: Will of John Bowyer of Hitchin Esq, written 25 Apr 1593.96 Supervisors: “me vere good frendes Mr George Crowder & Mr Thomas Lyllyngtone & my sonne in lawe Robert Papworthe of Hitchyn”.
1599 22 Apr: Feoffment: Thomas Burman of Bassingbourn, gent., to Robert Papworth of Hitchin, and William Papworth 6 acres of arable land in Hitchin, in Haye field, and More mead field. (abuttals given). Witnesses: John Pearles, Tho. Gaddesden.97 See also the 1558-1603 and 1601 records.
The following show 2 households in Hitchin in 1571-72, 3 in 1576, 4 in 1588 and 3 in 1598-9. There may of course have been others that didn’t reach the thresholds. The 1591 Rental was only of the Manor of Hitchin.
James Papworth was assessed at 5s 4d for 40s in land.
Letice Papworthe was assessed at [10s] for £6 in goods.
James Papworth was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
Letice Papworthe was assessed at [6s for £6] in goods.
Robert Papworthe was assessed at 5s for 40s in goods.
Letice Papworthe was assessed at [illegible] for £6 in goods.
James Papworthe was assessed at 5s 4d for 40s in land.
James Papworthe was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
Michaell Papworthe was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
Edward Papworthe was assessed at 6s for £6 in goods.
Robert Papworthe was assessed at 3s for 40s in goods.
· An orchyard By the Churche yard—12d
· five acres of arable land Lying at the Chalkepyttes sometyme smithes—12d.
· 7 acres of arable Land lying next By the waye leading gooing to maydencroft— 14d [an increase of an acre over 1556, but same rate of rent]
· 20 acres of arable land Lying in dyvers Fyeldes of hitchin sometyme smithes— 2s 6d
· A howse Lying At Portmill late James Papworths the innocent—16d. This was James, son of Edmund Papworth (d 1540).
· parte of A dolle lat the sayd James—2s 8d
Total 9s 8d
Another entry in the 1591 Rental recorded that Edward Papworth held the house near the Swan—rent 3s—and the tenement adjoining it next The Cocke—rent 6⅜d—both of which were held by William Papworth in 1556. Taken together with the properties in the snip above, 6 of Edwarde Papworthe’s 8 holdings in 1591 had been held by William‘s in 1566. The only one of William’s holdings not held by Edward in 1591 was the stallage. Edwarde was presumably therefore a son of William. Edwarde’s final two items in the snip above were James Papworth’s in 1556. Being for half a year, the quit rents—following each item—were mostly half the 1556 amounts.
The 1591 Rental of the Manor of Hitchin contained 2 entries for Robert Papworth, both with additions in the text and margins:
Item For tenement in Bancroft street wherin he dwelleth, late William parris 1¾d
And For his porche before his doore 1d
Item For A Burgage & half nexte the tenemente Aforsayd, sometyme tristrams, & late Serghent Boyers 7½d
Item for 16 acres of land necnonden somtym astries & late Burmans 4d
[margin] Item For 13 acres of arable land somtym astries & lat Burmans 7d
[revised total] 21¼d
Comment: The 1½ freehold burgages formerly Lawrence Trustram’s, had previously been John Papworthe’s, quit rent 15d for a full year in 1566. Robert’s home in Bancroft Street, formerly owned by William Parris, and owned by Robert Papworth in 1566, was bequeathed by Edmund Papworthe to his son Robert in his Will of 1540. “The payment for the porch to the Lord of the Manor was because it was an encroachment into the street as were bay windows, steps, and railings.105
Item For A Lytell pyghtell Lying at malt myll Lane & 14 acres of a arable Land called Wyninghame peece 22d
Item For 6 acres of arable land lying in they Fieldes of walsworthe somtyme astris And late Burmans 3s
Item for 4 acres & 3 Roods of arable land & on acre and halfe a cotland with thappurtenances of thomas Chapman somtym astries & late bormans 5s
Item For A Porche Befor his Doore in the markeyt place late hermers called the black how 2d
[margin] Item For one acre of land in hill grove field late Jhon audlies 4d
[margin next to the porch item] John Dards [deleted] Deonise Hynd [deleted]
[total] 10s 2d [Isn’t it 10s 4d?]
Comment: Wyninghame peece was also bequeathed by Edmund Papworthe to his son Robert in his Will of 1540. “I think the black how porch now belonged to Thomas Chapman not Robert Papworth which would make the correct total 10s 2d. According to the section of the rental for Freehold properties ownership of the Black House passed from John Dards to Deonise Hynd then to Thomas Chapman.”107
BH 20 May: The payment for the porch to the Lord of the Manor was because it was an encroachment into the street as were bay windows, steps, and railings.
late William Parrys wherein he dwelleth next to his 1½ burgages. Quit rent (for 6 months) 1¾d and for porch before his door 1d.
Present day location:108 “John Papworth’s 1½ burgages held by Laurence Tristram in 1556 were back in the ownership of Robert Papworth by 1591. Robert Papworth’s house in Bancroft is on the site of nos 32-33 Bancroft, and John Papworth’s of 34 Bancroft. I think these were probably the houses at Capswell left by William Papworth to his sons John and William in 1520.”
Winefrid Papworth Widow was assessed at 8s for 40s in land.
Michael Papworth was assessed at 8s for 40s in land.
Robert Papworthe was assessed at 13s 4d for 100s in goods.
1568 Aug: “The 22 daie was baptized Lettis Papworth daughter of Jeames P”
1571 Jul: “The 15 daie was baptized Anne Papworth daughter of Jeames Papworth”
1573/4 Jan: “The 24 daie was baptized Alis Papworth daughter of James Papworth”
1574 Jun: “The 17 daie were maryed Danyell Hurste & Annys Papworth”
1579 Oct: “The 26 daie were maried Robert Draper & Elizabeth Papworth”
1579 Nov: “The same (26) daie were maried Tymothie Pen’e & Elizabeth Papworth”
1581 Aug: “The 6 daie was baptized Robert the sone of Robert Papworth”
1584 May: “The first daie was baptized George the sone of Robert Papworth”
1583/4 Feb: “The 12 daie was buried John’ Papworth”
1585/6 Jan: “The 9 daie was baptized Elizabeth the daughter of Robert Papworth”
1586 Oct: “The same (2) daie was baptized Annys the daughter of Michaell Papworth”
1586 Dec: “The 27 daie was baptized Will’m the sone of Edward Papworth”
1587 Dec: “The same (17) daie was baptized Marye the daughte of Robert Papworth”
1588: Edmound Papworth baptised 15 Sep 1588, son of Edmound
1589: Allice Papworth baptised 27 Apr 1589, daughter of Michaell
1589: James Papworth buried 10 Jul 1589
1590: James Papworth buried 28 Jul 1590
1590: Joane Papworth baptised 25 Oct 1590, daughter of Michaell
1590: Joane Papworth buried 22 Nov 1590, daughter of Edward
1592: Lettis Papworth buried 11 Jul 1592
1592: Thomas Papworth baptised 28 May 1592, son of Robert
1592: William Papworth baptised 15 May 1592, son of Michaell
1592: William Papworth buried 14 Oct 1592, son of Michaell
1594: William Papworth baptised 14 Apr 1594, son of Michaell
1594: William Papworth buried 17 Jun 1594, son of Michaell
1595: George Papworth baptised 7 Dec 1595, son of Michaell
1596: Elizabeth Papworth married 25 Oct 1596 Edward Lenton
1596: George Papworth buried 28 Feb 1596, son of Michaell
1596: Michaell Papworth baptised 14 Nov 1596, son of Robert
1597: Michaell Papworth buried 7 Nov 1597, son of Robert
1599: Christopher Papworth baptised 7 Oct 1599, son of Michaell
1599: Robert Papworth baptised 7 Oct 1599, son of Michaell
Conclusions: [To follow]
A Papworth branch lived at this period in the hamlet of Charlton, or Chalton, some as Millers. It had become anciently separate from Hitchin when Charlton Mill was granted to the Knights Templars c 1140 along with part of the manor of Dinsley.113 Dinsley was in the parish of St Ippollitts, thus Charlton was too. It stands on the River Hiz scarcely a mile SW of Hitchin centre and is at the end of a narrow tongue of land extending west from Ippollitts into Hitchin parish, and thus surrounded on three sides by Hitchin. Many Papworths of Charlton, although parishioners of Ippollitts were baptised and buried in the nearer Hitchin Parish Church rather than Ippollitts Church. Papworth records also refer to Charlton as both in the parish of Hitchin and St Ippollitts. Conversely, Papworth records concerning Preston, a hamlet in Hitchin Parish, can refer to it as in the Parish of Ippollitts.
Surviving subsidy records show 4 households in Hitchin in 1608 and 2 in 1628, and one in Ippollitts in 1608:114
1600: Will of John Papworth of Preston, Hitchin, written 26 Nov 1600.115 Summary of the Will:
1. Apparently unmarried—no mention of wife or children.
2. To be buried in Hitchin Parish Churchyard.
· Many small bequests of money and other items to individuals, including to the 4 unmarried daughters of deceased brother Jaymes Pappeworthe: Letice, Elizabeth, Anne, and Alice (also his god daughter).
4. Residue to the same Letice, Elizabeth, Anne, and Alice Pappeworthe.
5. Executor: “Thomas Pappeworthe my brother”.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: John Stratton vicar of Ippollettes, Edward Lawrence, George Dawlton, John Buckingham.
1. Relationship to other Papworths to follow.
2. He mentioned no property.
3. His brother James had died, and brother Thomas died 1604
4. The same 4 daughters of deceased brother Jaymes were still unmarried in 1604.
1604: Will of Thomas Papworthe of Hitchin, Tilemaker, written 20 Apr 1604.116 Summary of the Will:
1. Apparently unmarried—no mention of wife or children.
2. To be buried in Christian burial.
· to brother James Papworth’s son Thomas the house in Hitchin, the house in Preston, the orchard, the pond next to the butcher, a pit by the pond, three half acres of land abutting Dead Woman Lane in High Field, and one acre in Chalgrave Field.
· An acre of wheat each to to Letice, Elizabeth, Agnes, and Alice Papworthe.
· to Bridgett Kent 4 bushels of wheat
· to tenant Agnes Field 10s.
4. Residue not mentioned.
5. Executor: Brother James Papworth’s son Thomas.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Symon Browne, Agnes Fielde and John Sergent.
1. Relationship to other Papworths to follow.
2. Inventory valued at £5 4s 6d.
3. Letice, Elizabeth, Agnes and Alice Papworthe had been mentioned by John, Thomas’ brother, in 1600 as the 4 unmarried daughters of deceased brother Jaymes Pappeworth.
1607: Will of Edmund Papworth of Chalton, St Ippolitts, Yeoman, written 11 Jun 1607.117 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Elizabeth.
2. To be buried in Hitchin Parish churchyard.
· to “Elizabeth my wyfe myne Orchard lying by the Churchyard of Hitchin aforesaid one howse lying also in Hitchin in the tenure of Edward Hobbes, & all my freehold landes lying in the parish of Hitchin aforesaid nowe in the tenure of John Tristram” during her widowhood.
· to elder son William “all myne howses & tenementes & messuages in the tenure of George Heydey & his assignes & of Edward Hobbes aforenamed lying in Hitchin aforesaid: as also (except before bequeathed) all my landes & hereditamentes in the parishe & feyldes of Hitchin aforesaid nowe in the tenure of John Tristram”
· to younger son Edmund, monetary bequests.
4. Residue to … [From here the rest of the original Will is missing, but he mentioned an unnamed executrix, presumably his wife.]
1. he was no doubt the Edmound Papworth of Ippollitts buried 19 Jun 1608.
2. In some records Edmund was called Edward. For instance in the baptism records of his two sons William and Edmund, whom he mentioned here in his Will, he was Edward and Edmund:118
1586 Dec: “The 27 daie was baptized Will’m the sone of Edward Papworth”
1588 Sep: “The 15 daie was baptized Edmound the sone of Edmound Papworth”
In the 1588 subsidy for Hitchin half hundred—which included Ippollitts—Edward Papworthe was assessed at 6s for £6 in goods,119 and for the 1591 Rental of the Manor of Hitchin the property held by Edwarde Papworthe had clearly been held by William in 1556, and was passed on here in Edmund’s Will of 1607. For the separate 1598 subsidy for Ippollitts Edward Papworthe was assessed at 4s for 20s in land.120 However in his father’s Will of 1565 and his own here, as well as the 1584 Hitchin Manor court roll surrender he was Edmund.
3. The “Orchard lying by the Churchyard of Hitchin” that Edmund left here to his wife Elizabeth is a case in point. It was obviously the “orchyard By the Churche yard” held by Edward Papworth in 1591, and the garden next to the churchyard held earlier by William Papworth in 1556 and the “orchyarde and gardyne” bequeathed by William to Edmund in 1565. There were no instructions in Edmund’s Will here as to whom it should remain after his wife Elizabeth, perhaps they were in the missing part of the Will.
4. Much or all of the property that passed to Edmund/Edward from William would have been lumped together here unnamed under the tenancies of Edward Hobbes, John Tristram and George Heydey. One of these would have been the house next to the Swan. “It seems significant that in 1676 both the orchard and the house next to the Swan were held by Frances Barnwell.”121
“Frances, wife of John Barnwell, gentleman, holds of the lady of this manor one orchard next to the Churchyard, once of a certain Papworth and afterwards of Graveley Hurst, deceased and now in the tenure of John Thornton” quit rent 2s 8d per annum.”
“Frances now the wife of John Barnewell, gentleman, holds freely of the lady of this manor one messuage with appurtenances in Bancroft Street, formally two tenements, next to the lane called Codd Pisse Alley, once of Graveley Hurst, deceased and now in the tenure of John Thorneton” quit rent 6s 8d per annum.122
So, some time after 1608 the orchard and the house next to the Swan passed out of Papworth hands and prior to 1676 they passsed to Graveley Hurst and then Frances Barnwell.
1608: Subsidy for Hitchin
Winifrid Papworth Widow was assessed at 16d for 20s in land.
Michael Papworth was assessed at 2s 8d for 40s in land.
William Papworth was assessed at 3s for £3 in goods.
Robert Papworth was assessed at 5s for £5 in goods.
1608: Subsidy for Ippollitts
Edward Papworth was assessed at 4s? for £3? in land.
1620: Will of Robert Papworth, Yeoman of Hitchin, written 5 Nov 1620, proved PCC 10 Jan 1621.123 Summary of the Will:
1. Husband of Elizabeth (died 1630).
2. To be buried “in Christian buryall”.
· to wife Elizabeth the family home in Hitchin and the two adjoining tenements for a year, after which so long as she remained unmarried “the great loft over my hall and the litle loft lyinge on the Sowth side of the said great lofte belonginge” to the family home, and an annuity of £10 a year from the the family home, the two adjoining tenements and 3 acres of arable land late Welches and two closes of pasture and arable land at Chaulton he purchased from John Awdeley.
· to son William and his son Robert the properties mentioned in the previous item after one year.
· to son William’s eldest son Robert £20, and to each of William’s other children £10 at marriage or 21.
· to son Robert the £300 that he paid Symon Hurst for his father.
· to son Robert’s eldest son William £20, and to each of Robert’s other children £10 at marriage or 21.
· to son William £250 for assigning to his brother Thomas all right and title to the house Thomas was living in, which Robert and William purchased from Mr Gaddesden.
· to son Thomas £120 and the other 3 half acres of arable land in Berrye feild, part of the 3 acres Robert purchased from Nicholas Awdley.
· to Elizabeth, Thomas’ daughter £10 and £10 to “the Child which Sara the wife of the said Thomas doth now goe withall”. The latter was increased to £20 in a Memorandum, should the child be a son—which it was: Robert, baptized 18 Mar 1621.124
· to Robert Lucas, son of my daughter Elizabeth, £20, and to each of Elizabeth’s other children £10 at marriage or 21.
· to my daughter Elizabeth or her children a further £100 with the consent of her brothers William and Thomas and the overseers of the Will.
· to wife Elizabeth £200 “and all my househould stuffe”.
· to sister Elizabeth Cooper 20s and 20s to each of her children now living.
· to Joane Dymyngesdalle, and to John and Anne Williams the children of his deceased sister Agnes, 40s each.
· to wife Elizabeth and to son William and his son Robert various individual items.
· to 8 named servants 10s each and to Arthur Duncombe 40s.
4. Residue to his three sons equally.
5. Executors: Wife Elizabeth and son Robert.
6. Overseers: “my lovinge freindes and kynsmen, William Spicer, Robert Spicer and Thomas Spicer”.
7. Witnesses: James Turner, John Turner, William Papworth.
1. The Will shows a wealthy Yeoman with several properties, many servants and valuable household items such as walnut bedsteads, wainscott hangings and glasse windows. He also left “my great Presse in my parlor” to his eldest son. Robert was the eldest son of Robert (d 1546-7) son of Edmund (d 1540). Robert’s properties were itemised in the manorial Survey of 1556 and Rental of 1591.
2. He mentioned 3 sons: William, Robert and Thomas, all married. All had children alive, Thomas just a daughter Elizabeth [baptized 28 Oct 1619]125 but also an unborn child his wife Sara was pregnant with. Son William was presumably Robert’s eldest son and may have been the witness William Papworth. He was born by 1582. The witness was unlikely to have been Robert’s grandson, the son of his son Robert, born after 1606.
3. Other mentions of Robert Papworth in these documents concerning Papworths:
1624: Will of Michael Papworth of Chaulton “in the parishe of Hitchin”, Yeoman, written 5 Sep 1624.126 Summary of the Will:
1. Wife Jane had been buried 4 Jul 1615.127
2. To be buried at the discretion of his executor.
· to all his grandchildren a noble each, that is the children of his sons-in-law John Wallwyn alias Poulter, William Jebson and William Steevens.
4. Residue to son Christopher.
5. Executor: Son Christopher.
6. Overseer: None.
7. Witnesses: Edward Papworth and Francis Crawley.
1. Michael was a son of William Papworth d 1566.
2. On 24 Oct 1616 Joane Papworth married William Stevens, and on 25 Oct 1590 Joane Papworth, daughter of Michaell, had been baptised. This shows that Michael used the term ‘son-in-law’ as we do today.
3. Son Christopher is recorded baptizing children in Hitchin from 1623.
4. Witness Edward Papworth may have been Edward Papworth [snr] of Hyppollettes, Miller, d 1638.
1627: Elizabeth Papworth, of Hitchin, Widow, written 21 Jun 1627.128 Summary of the Will:
1. Widow of Robert died 1621 [not mentioned].
2. To be buried in Christian burial.
· to son William Papworth and his eldest son Robert, second son William (at 21), eldest daughter Elizabeth Auncell, and daughter Hanna Papworth (at 21).
· to the 3 children (at 21 or marriage) of deceased son Robert Papworth: William, Elizabeth and Sara.
· to the 4 children (at 21 or marriage) of son Thomas Papworth: Elizabeth, Robert Thomas and Mary, and to “the childe which Sara the wife of the said Thomas doth now goe withall.”
· to son in law Symon Lucas 20s, and daughter Elizabeth Lucas £200 within 6 months of the decease of Symon Lucas her husband, and £12 a year out of its profits until then.
· to Elizabeth Lucas, daughter of Simon Lucas, £40 (at 22 or marriage) and 40s a year out of its profits until then.
· to the other 5 children of Simon Lucas: Robert, Willyam, John, Simon and Mary £10 each (at 22).
· 20s each to Agnes Pearpointe, wife of Moses Pearpointe, and Johane Dyminsdale, wife of Willyam Dyminsdale.
4. Residue to executor.
5. Executor: Son Thomas Papworth.
6. Overseers: Son William Papworth and her two kinsmen Robert Spicer alias Helder and William Benynge.
7. Witnesses: James Turner senr, James Turner Junr and John Turner.
1. Her bequests were all of money and goods, no land.
2. Son Robert and daughter Anne had died by 1627. Robert was alive in 1620, but not Anne apparently.
3. Daughter Elizabeth Lucas had 6 children by 1627. The bequests to her and her children were much larger than to others.
4. Joan Dyminsdale was also left a bequest in husband Robert’s Will—of 40s.
5. Husband Robert had also appointed Robert Spicer as an overseer, along with William and Thomas Spicer, his “lovinge freindes and kynsmen”.
6. James and John Turner were also witnesses to husband Robert’s Will.
1628 Subsidy for Hitchin
William Papworth was assessed at 20s for £5 in land.
Thomas Papworth was assessed at 16s for £4 in land.
(The Ippollitts 1628 return is damaged and illegible.)
1628/9 12 Mar: A settlement by William Papworth Gent on his son Robert and his intended wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Hawes of Bedford Gent. To set up his daughter for life with a husband and a home, Thomas Hawes agreed to pay William Papworth 1000 marks, for which a number of properties were specified which she and her husband could occupy for her life. After that their children would inherit them.129 The Bancroft properties in the settlement look like the ones owned by William and Edmund Papworth in the 16th C, and the 3 acres of arable land in Ridge Feild abutted on the land of Nicholas Brockett of Ippolllitts.
1637: Will and inventory of Edward Papworth of St Ippollitts.130
Witness to Michael’s Will of 1624?
1676: The Survey of the Manor of Hitchin confirms a number of Papworth relationships:131
1677: A copy of a survey of the manor of Temple Dinsley dated 1664 and the book of 18th century extracts from the court rolls in which it is contained has references to Edward Papworth owing rent for his mills and to Robert Papworth surrendering land in 1677. Charlton Mill belonged to the Manor of Temple Dinsley.132
1600: John Papworth buried 28 Nov 1600. See Will below.
1600: Robert Papworth buried 12 Nov 1600, son of Michaell
1601: William Papworth baptised 8 Mar 1601, son of Michaell
1601: William Papworth buried 14 Jun 1601, son of Michaell134
1604: Alice Papworth buried 15 Oct 1604, daughter of widdowe Papworth
1604: Alice Papworth buried 15 Oct 1604, daughter of Michaell
1604: Marye Papworth buried 5 Dec 1604, daughter of Robert
1604: Thomas Papworth buried 25 Apr 1604. See Will below.
1605: William Papworth married 23 Jan 1605 Hanna Greene
1606: Robert Papworth baptised 2 Feb 1606, son of William
1608: Edmound Papworth buried 19 Jun 1608. Of Ippollitts, see Will below.
1608: Elizabeth Papworth baptised 13 Mar 1608, daughter of William
1609: Elizabeth Papworth married 13 Jul 1609 Symon Lucas
1610: Willyam Papworth baptised 14 Oct 1610, son of Willyam
1615: Agnes Papworth buried 5 May 1615, daughter of Robert
1615: Anne Papworth baptised 9 Jul 1615, daughter of William
1615: “The 4 day [Julie] was buried Jane the wife of Mychaell Papworth”
[1615: William Papworthe married 27 May 1615 Mary Newman in Ickleford, a mile or two N of Hitchin.]135
1616: Joane Papworth married 24 Oct 1616 William Stevens
1619: Elizabeth Papworth baptised 28 Oct 1619, daughter of Thomas
1620: Roberte Papworth buried 26 Dec 1620. See Will below.
1621: Robert Papeworth baptised 18 Mar 1620/1, son of Thomas
1621: “The 3 day [September] was buried Ms Papeworth the wife of Edward Papeworth” [who probably died 1608].
1622: Edward Papworth married 19 Aug 1622 Mary Baker
1622: Thomas Papeworth baptised 15 Dec 1622, son of Thomas
1623: Christopher Papworth baptised 10 Aug 1623, son of Christopher
1623: Hannah Papworth baptised 3 Sep 1623, daughter of William
1624: Elizabeth Papworth married 27 Oct 1624 Thomas Ansill
1624: Michael Papworth buried 22 Nov 1624. See Will below.
1625: Marye Papworth baptised 16 Mar 1625, daughter of Thomas
1625: Thomas Papworth baptised 3 Jul 1625, son of Christopher
1625: Thomas Papworth buried 4 Jul 1625, son of Christopher
1626: Sarah Papworth baptised 24 Dec 1626, daughter of Christopher
1627: Sarah Papworth baptised 15 Nov 1627, daughter of Thomas
1627: Susan Papworth buried 13 Dec 1627, daughter of Edward
1629: Sarah Papworth buried 8 May 1629, daughter of Thomas
1629: Sarah Papworth buried 25 Jul 1629, daughter of Christopher
1630: Elizabeth Papworth buried 1 Mar 1630. Widow of Robert d 1621, see Will below.
1630: Sarah Papworth baptised 1 Jan 1630, daughter of Thomas
1631: William Papworth buried 2 Mar 1631, son of Robert
1637: Elizabeth Papworth married 28 Sep 1637 Hitchin Charles Mattock
1638: Georg Papworth baptised 22 Mar 1637/8, son of Mr Robert Papworth
1638: Hanna Papworth buried 11 Aug 1638, daughter of William and Avis
1639: William Papworth married 30 Nov 1639 Judith Arthur or Fawcet
1643: Hanna Papworth buried 23 Feb 1643 wife of William
1645: Hanae Papworth buried 31 May 1645, daughter of Cristopher
1654: John Papworth married 12 Mar 1654 Stevenage Mary Bardwill
In 1616 and 1637 William Papworth signed the Hitchin Parish Register for the years March 1616 to March 1617 and March 1637 to March 1638:136
Clearly, these were two different Williams.
These show nnn Papworth households in Ippollitts in 1600 and nnn by 1650 and nnn in 1710.137
A Papworth branch lived in the neighbouring parish of Ippollitts and in Charlton, or Chalton, (only a mile from Hitchin town centre) in the 17th C. Ippollitts parish records don’t survive before 1605 so it isn’t known if Papworths were there in the early to mid 16th C. At the end of it, in 1598 an Edward Papworthe was assessed at 4s for 20s in land in Ippollitts and again in 1608, but other tax 16th C returns for Ippollitts recorded no Papworths. No Ippollitts Papworth Wills have been found before Edward’s of 1607.
The Ippollitts register is somewhat higgledy-piggedly, with pages from different dates side by side—perhaps exacerbated by the order FMP has presented the images—and by a mixture of hands, some poorly written. The title on the first written page is “Booke of the Marriages & Burialls & Christenings of the parish of St Hippolletts in the Countie of Hartford 1625”, and records go through to 1710, all the images of which have been carefully searched.138 Bishop’s Transcripts survive from 1604, but FMP and FamilySearch haven’t covered these. There is occasional damage and one half page is faded and illegible between March and 24 July 1645, so it’s possible that one or two Papworths—or Brokets—may have escaped record. Here and there are a number of family records spanning several years entered together, as though someone from that family personally wrote the information into the register. This applies to a double page spread written in a fine neat hand, possibly by Edmund Papworth, Miller of Charlton.Read more
1625: Thomas Papworth baptised Sep 1625, son of Edward139
1629: John Papworth baptised 15 Jan 1629, son of Edward140
1632: Mary Papworth baptised 6 Mar 1632/3, daughter of Edward141
1635: Ann Papworth married 9 Nov 1635 Edward Brocket142
1639: Edward buried 14 Feb 1637/8
1639: Mary Papworth buried 5 Mar 1638/9, wife of William
1642: Mary Papworth married 20 May 1642 John Gipsie
1642: Elizabeth Papworth married 27 Oct 1642 Francis Welles143
1670: Edmund Papworth married 21 Sep 1670 Alice Read [as a second wife]
A note at the end of the Parish Register of a visitation by the bishop or archdeacon to St Ippollitts in 1689 recorded Edmunde Papworth as a pauper: “Edmunde Papworths paupertas May day 89”
Following are the Papworth records 1600-1650 for Hitchin (and Ippollitts) gathered from other sources, in particular from 2 catalogues: TNA online catalogue,144 and the National Register of Archives digitisation project NRA 308, digitised by TNA.145 NRA 308 comprises miscellaneous deeds and papers relating to Hitchin and district, deposited by the late R L Hine, and subsequently converted to a gift by his Widow, Mrs Florence Hine.146 Included here also are extracts from the Maydencroft Manor Court Rolls that mentioned Papworths. Maydencroft Manor was in the Parish of St Ippolyts and extracts survive from 1603-1702:147Read more
1601 1 Apr: Deed to levy a fine. Thomas Burman of Bassingbourne, and Joan his wife, to William Papworth of Hitchin, yeoman. Thomas and Joane Burman have already conveyed to William Papworth 1 messauge or tenement with 1 orchard, 1 garden, and 1 close of pasture adjoining the same in Hitchin now in the tenure or occupation of John Pearles and 1 little pightell and garden plot on the north side of the messuage now in the tenure of Thomas Coke and 20 acres of freehold arable land late in the tenure or occupation of Thomas Gaddesden gent.148 Note: The 1591 rental recorded Thomas Burman holding part of a burgage next to the Bull quit rent 1¾d.149 See also the 1558-1603 and 1599 records above.
1601 Easter: Fine. William Papworth quer., and William Astrye and Thomas Burman and Joan his wife defendants. 1 messuage, cottage, garden, orchard etc. in Hitchin.150
1601 1 Oct: Bond for performance of covenants in indenture of same date. Thomas Chawkeley of Preston, par of Ippollitts, husbandman, to John Chawkeley of Pawles Walden, wheelwright, and Richard Chawkeley his son. Witnesses: John Hurste, Henry Chawkeley, Robt Papworth, scr Henry Chalkley. Seals: 1 red wax, tongue, defaced. Signature: Thos Chawkeley (mark).151
1603-25: Pleadings. Plaintiffs: Hugh Awdley. Defendants: William Papworth, Richard Love, Thomas Honylove, Thomas Saunders, Ambrose Smith, Agnes Draper, Grace Turner, George Bunchley and [unknown] Mattocks. Subject: claim under the will of the deceased Joan, the plaintiff’s grandmother, to messuages, etc near Hitchin.154 See the 1544-51 suit above.
1608 1 Aug: William Papworth admitted to Six acres of land lyeing in Langehedge Next the Kings highway west & abutting vpon the way leading to Wymondly towards the North surrendered by Edmond Papworth his father. Rent 2s; Fine £4 13s 8d. (“& [his] wife” had mistakenly been written and was crossed out and “[his] father” added.)155
1608: No Papworths were recorded in the Survey of the Kings Timber and woods in Hertfords’ of this year for Hitchin.156
1613 7 Oct: Edward Hurst admitted to 6 acres of land in Moremead Feild 2 acres whereof lyee in Sweetings Vale between the land of Thomas Dearmer North the land of Edward Hurst south & 2 other acres lyeing between the lords land south & Thomas Dearmer North another acre lyeth between the land of William Brockett south & the land of Robert Hurst north the other acre residue thereof lyeth between the land of Luke Norton Esq West & John Tristram east surrendered by Michaell Papworth. Rent 2s; Fine 40s.
Michaell Papworth admitted to one close of pasture called Wellhead close containing one acre & a halfe surrendered by Edward Hurst. Rent 16d; Fine 15s.157
1614 5 Oct: John Wallen alias Poulter & Mary his wife admitted to one acre & a halfe of land lying next nigh Temple ending & the house of Richard Odell surrendered by Michael Papworth. Rent 16d; Fine 20s.158
1615 10 Nov: Feoffment. Ralph Gurney, citz chandler of London, to Richard Chawkeley of Preston in par of Ippollitts, yeoman. Mess & app 1a in Preston in par & 4a arable in field of Preston, of which 2a. lie in Chawcroft field, near Pagenfield and 3r lie in Pagenfield near the cemetery of the church, 3r in Kynges field, ½a lies in same field near Kyngeshyll. Witnesses (to seisin): Tho Dyxe, Nich Hurst; (to sealing): Robt Papworth, Thos Dixe. Nich Hurst. Seals: 1 red wax, tag, bearing letters WA. Signature of Ralph Gurney. Endorsements: Livery of seisin.159
1615 10 Nov: Bond for peaceable possession and to execute further assurances. Ralph Gurney, citz and tallow chaundler of London, to Richard Chawkeley, yeoman. Mess & app 1a in Preston, Ippollitts & 4a arable in fields of Preston. Witnesses (to sealing): Robert Papworth scr, Thomas Dyxe & Nicholas Hurst. Seals : 1 red wax, tongue, initials WA. Signature of Ralph Gurney.160
1615 27 Dec: Bargain and Sale and Deed to lead the use of a fine and covenant to levy fine. Thomas Gaddesden of Newnham, John Gaddesden, his son and Constance his wife, and Jeffery Lawrence, citizen and merchant of London, (1). William Papworth of Hitchin, yeoman, and Thomas Papworth (2). Robert Papworth of Hitchin and Robert Papworth, citizen and chandler of London (3). 19 acres 3 roods arable in Hitchin. (abuttals set out).161
1615/16 12 Feb: Exemplification of Recovery. Robert Papworth senior, and Robert Papworth junior, plaintiffs; William and Thomas Papworth defendants; John Gaddesden, vouchee. 35 acres of land.162
1621 18 Oct: John Wallen alias Pulter admitted in fee to 6 acres of land in Hillgrove Feild in one peice lyeing Next to Maydencroft lane on the one part & the headland of William Papworth on the other part abutting with one head vpon away Leading from Totmerhill Surrendered by Michael Papworth. Rent 2s; Fine 40s.163
1622 20 Jun: Grant. By Thomas Papworth of Hitchin, yeoman, to Robert Lucas, son and heir of Simon Lucas of Hitchin, yeoman, of property in Bancroft Street, Hitchin. Signature. Seal missing.164
1622 20 Jun: Bond. To save harmless Robert Lucas from the dower of Sarah wife of Thomas Papworth, out of the property in the Grant of the same day. Signature. Seal missing.165
1622 22 Oct: William Jobson admitted in fee to one Close commonly called hemp Close lyeing in Charlton containing 2 acres lyeing Next a Close of John Wallen alias Pulter North & a Close of Michaell Papworth south surrendered by Christopher Papworth. Rent 8d; Fine 15s.
The same admitted in fee to one acre of land commonly called Holders acre lyeing lyeing nigh sweetings valley peice surrendered by Christopher Papworth. Rent 4d; Fine 5s.166
1623 10 Apr: Copy of Court Roll. Admission of Andrew Sewertyes to land in Hilsgrove Field on the surrender of Michael Papworth.167
1623 24 Oct: Bernard Browne admitted in fee to 15 acres of land lyeing & being in Heyfeild vpon sweeting valley peece lyeing between holdere acre east & the land of John Arthur alias Fawcett west abutting against Chalton Mill pond surrendered by Michaell & Christopher Papworth. Rent -; Fine -.
William Gyver & Sarah his wife admitted to them & the heires of William to the aforesaid fifteen acres of land surrendered by the aforesaid Michaell & Christopher Papworth and Bernard Browne. Rent -; Fine £7 10s.168
1623 24 Oct: Gravely Hurst admitted in fee to one acre of land in Ryclose adjoyneing neare to the land of John Wallen alias Powlter north & the land of Robert Chalkeley south surrendered by Michael and Christopher Papworth. Rent -; Fine -.169
1624 22 Oct: John Wallen alias Powlter admitted in fee to one Close of land called a hempclose containing two acres lying in Wellhead Feild in the parish of Hitchin between the land of John Wallen alias Powlter North & south one had abutteth east vpon the land of Gravely Hurst & west vpon Wellhead way surrendered by William Jobson and Michael Papworth. Rent -; Fine 15s.
John Wallen alias Poulter admited in fee to a Close or Croft of land & pasture containing by estimacion 3 acres lyeing at Wellhead adjoyneing to Temple ending surrendered by Michael Papworth. Rent -; Fine 40s.
Thomas Same & Hellen his wife admitted to them and the heires of Hellen to one acre of land in Pagent Feild Next a Close of Christopher Papworth & Hannah his wife North & the land in the tenure of Richard Chalkely south surrendered by John Draper. Rent -; Fine 6s.170
1625 21 Oct: William Papworth admitted in fee conditionally to one acre of land called Holders acre lyeing next the backside of Chalton surrendered by William Jobson. Rent -; Fine -.171
1627 21 Jun: Note of legacies. Given under the will of Elizabeth Papworthe of Hitchin, Widow, to Simon Lucas and Elizabeth his wife and to their children.172
1628: Marriage settlement: marriage of Robert Papworth son and heir of William Papworth the elder of Hitchin gentleman and Mary Hawes one of daughters of Thomas Hawes. Capital messuage in Bancroft now in tenure of William Papworth and three messuages or tenements on south side thereof settled on Robert and Mary. Conveyance, Papworth to Skynner, relating to property in Hitchin; 1,000 year lease of close in Hillgrove Field to indemnify the parish of Hitchin from the maintenance of two bastard children, 1721; counterpart leases from the churchwardens and overseers of land in Standhill Field and Spittle Field, 1736, 1764, 1772.173
1629 15 Apr: Copy of court roll: surrender of William Papworth to own use and use of Robert Papworth. Piece of arable called “Winingham peece” and pightle called “le Mill Pond Close”. [Manor of Hitchin].174
1628/9-1635: Abstract of title of Robert Papworth. Capital messuage in Bancroft; 3 messuages adjoining; and various lands [fully set out].175
1630 31 Jul: Bond. Between William Papworth of Ippollitts, yeoman, Francis Wells of Kings Walden, cordwainer, and Mary Papworth, daughter of William Papworth, 1st, and Robert Lucas of Hitchin, maltster, 2nd, in connection with a surrender of copyhold land in Hitchin. Signatures.176
1634: William Papworth jun was a corslett soldier in the Hitchin Trained Band under Sir William Lytton’s command:177 His sponsor, or ‘Finder’ was William Papworth, his father? Presumably the same William was Finder for Edward Harrold, a muskett soldier.178 Thomas Papworth was Finder for corslett soldier William Crowt, and muskett soldier Richard Trustram.179 and Robert Papworth was Finder for muskett soldier George Crawley.180
1635 Trinity: Fine. Robert Papworth gent, quer., and Edlin and Elizabeth Tristram defendants. 13 acres land.181
1635: Letters of Attorney. Edmund Baker of Chalton, Ippollitts, yeoman, to Edward Papworth of Chalton, Ippollitts, miller, and James Stretcher of Willian, yeoman, to collect £25 according to bond of John Eare of Hitchin, maltster, 9 June, 1635.182
1635 Oct 9: Robert Papworth gent admitted in fee to 7 acres and a ½ of land lying in moremead Feild whereof one acre lyeth Next the land of Edward Radcliffe Esq west and abutteth with one head l the land of Daniel Hurst south & vpon the highway leading from Hitchin to Offley towards the North one other halfe acre thereof lyeth in the same furlong the land of Thomas Papworth lyeing on the west one head abutteth vpon the land of Daniell Hurst towards the south & vpon the highway aforesaid towards the North 3 halfe acres being a Buttery peice lyeing Next the land of [blank] on the east & abutting vpon this the land of Mary Mayne widow towards the south & vpon the way leading from Preston to Pirton towards the west one acre thereof lyeth Next the land of Lettice Norton widow on the south part one head abutting towards the west vpon the way Last mencioned & vpon the land of Lettice Norton east one other acre lyeth next the land of the said Lettice on the North & one head abutteth towards the west vpon the land of Thomas Papworth one acre thereof abutteth vpon the last mencioned halfe acre towards the west and vpon the land of Edward Radcliffe Esq towards the south one other halfe acre lyeth Next Kidney Hills in the same Feild the land of Simon Lucas lyeing on the North & Richard Deards on the south one head abutting vpon the land of the said Lettice Norton towards the east one other acre thereof being a headland the land of Robert Draper lyeing on the east & abutteth vpon the land of Edward Hurst towards the south one other halfe acre residue thereof lyeth between the land of John Wallen alias Poulter South & the land of Simon Lucas north one head abutting towards the east vpon the land of William Gyver & towards the west vpon the land of Nicholas Brockett surrendered by Colyn Tristram & Elizabeth his wife. Rent -; Fine 51s[?].183
1635: Probate of Will (20 October, 1635). Edmund Baker of Chalton, Ippollitts, yeoman, testator. Bequests of personal property. Monetary bequests to family and to the poor of Ippollitts and Little Wymondley. (Endorsed “Edward Papworth Married the above Baker’s Daughter Mary, and She A Widow Marries John Jepps”).184
1635: Bond in £20. John Bazell of Bramfield, yeoman, to Edmund Baker of Chalton, Ippollitts, yeoman, for payment of £4 per annum for the term of Edmund Baker’s life. Payments to be made at the house of Edward Papworth in Chalton. (Endorsed “the above John Bazel maryed one of Baker Daughters and he had 6 Daughter for by his Will it appears he had 6 Son: in Law”).185
1637 24 Apr: Daniell Hurst admitted in fee to 2 acres of land in Moremead Feild Next Bodemeade gate Between the land of William Gyver gent North & Thomas Papworth south surrendered by Francis Rogers Esq & Anne his wife. Rent 10½d; Fine 40s.
Robert Papworth gent admitted in fee to seaven acres of land in Ridgefeild lyeing Next Maydencroft Lane the land of Nicholas Brockett on the east south & west partes thereof surrendered by Francis Rogers & Anne his wife. Rent 3s 1¾d; Fine £7.186
1638/9 Feb: Fine. Robert Papworth, gent, quer., and John Darbyshere gent, and Ann his wife, defendants. 1 messuage, 1 cottage, 1 garden, 1 orchard, 40 acres land 12 acres pasture in Hitchin, Offley, and Ippollitts.187
1639 15 Jul: Exemplification of Recovery. William Benn, gent, plaintiff, Robert Papworth, gent, defendant. 2 messuages, 2 gardens, 40 acres of land, 12 acres pasture in Hitchin, Offley, Ippollitts.188
1639 29 Jul: Copy of court roll. Surrender of John Derbyshire and Ann, his wife, to use of Robert Papworth, and his admission. Close at Bearton Green; 1 acre in Buryfield next to “le Ladder”; 2 acres and a half arable in Buryfield, 1 acre meadow in Bury Mead; 24 acres arable in common fields; land in Purwell field. [Manor of Hitchin].189
1639: Indenture of fine. Between Thomas Papworth and William Lucas plts, and Thomas Sewerties and Sarah, his wife, Thomas Hamond and Katherine his wife, and William Hurst and Anne his wife, defs, of land in Hitchin and Offley.190
1640 23 Oct: William Papworth & Judith Arther alias Fawcett & Susann Papworth admitted to a messuage or tenement in Ippollits in the occupacion of the said William and all houses &c to the same belonging and six acres of land & pasture inclosed to the same adjoyning surrendered by the said William to himselfe for life and afterwards To the said Judith his intended wife & Susann his younger daughter for their lives equally to be devided & after their deceases Then to the heires of the said Susann for ever. Rent 2s; Fine £7.191
1641: Exchequer: King’s Remembrancer: Certificate of residence showing Robert Papworth to be liable for taxation in Herts , and not in the half-hundred of Broadwater and hundred of Hitchin, Hertfordshire, the previous area of tax liability.192
1644: Release. William Spicer, alias Helder, of Hitchin, yeoman, to John Gips of Chalton, Ippollitts, miller, and Mary, his wife, (formerly wife of Edward Papworth, senior, of Chalton, Ippollitts, miller, deceased, and his executrix), on receipt of £14, due in 7 yearly payments for millstones in windmill at Offley, leased to Edward Papworth by William Spicer.193
1647 4 Jan: Robert Papworth admitted in fee to one acre of land called Holders acre in the parish of Hitchin Next the foot way Leading from Charlton to Offley surrendered by William Papworth senior. Rent 5d; Fine 8s.194
Comment: Robert sold it 21 months later to Joseph & Henry King.
1647: Discharge of Legacy. Edward Papworth of Ippollitts, singleman, to John Gips of Ippollitts, miller, his stepfather, on receipt of goods bequeathed to him in Will of Mary Gips, Papworth’s mother, late wife of John Gips. (Endorsed “Edword Papworth was of 2 names So Edmond and Edword was all one puson [sic]”).195
1648 11 Oct: Copy of court roll: conditional surrender to secure annuity of £15 per annum. Robert Papworth to William Papworth, senior. 4 acres arable in Purwell field; 1 acre “shootinge” on the 4 acres; 1 acre in Purwell Corner; half an acre in Cockmeade; 1 acre in Berrymeade. [abuttals given]. [Manor of Hitchin and Foreign].196
1648 11 Oct: 3 other Copies of court roll. Surrenders by Robert and William Papworth snr and jnr and others to use of Ralph Skynner, gent.197
1648 14 Oct: Joseph King senior & Henry King admitted to 7 acres of land in Ridgefeild Next the land there called Maydencroft Land the land of Thomas Bray lyeing on the south & west parts surrendered by Robert Papworth gent To the said Joseph for his life & afterwards: to the said Henry one of the younger sons of the said Joseph and the heires of his body begotten and for want of such heires To George King one other of the younger sonns of the said Joseph and his heires for ever. Rent 3s 1¾d; Fine £9 8s.
Joseph King & Henry King admitted to an acre of land in Moremead Feild commonly called or knowne by the name of Holders acre surrendered by Robert Papworth gent To Joseph King senior for life and afterwards to Joseph King junior his sonn and the heires of his body begotten & for want of such Issue To Henry King one other of the sonns of the said Joseph senior & the heires of his body begotten & for want of such Issue To George King one other of the sonns of the said Joseph senior & his heires for ever. Rent 5d; Fine 7s.198
1649: Discharge of Legacy. Thomas Papworth of Chalton, Ippollitts, singleman, son of Edward Papworth, senior, deceased, to John Jepps, of Chalton, Ippollitts, miller, his stepfather, executor of Mary Jepps, his late wife, mother of Papworth, on receipt of household goods bequeathed to him by Mary Jepps.199
1650-1: Copies of court roll. Sales to Ralph or John Skynner by Robert Papworth of Hitchin, Gent, and Mary his wife—one with Robert’s signature,200 one with Thomas Papworth a witness,201 and the last also with William Papworth the younger.202
1650 Jan 4: William Lucas admitted in Fee to 4 acres & ½ of land moremead feild one halfe acre whereof lyeth Next the Land of Ralph Radcliffe Esq west & east & abutteth vpon the way leading from Hitchin to offley on the North one other halfe acre in a furlong the land of Thomas Papworth west & abutteth vpon the Comon way North three halfe acres bend vpon the land of Mr [?] Manie south & vpon the Common Way leading from Preston to Pirton towards the west one acre abutteth vpon the land of John Skynner gent west & the land of Edward Radcliffe Esq south one other acre residue lyeth on Kitney Hills the land of Robert Lucas north & the land of Richard Deards south & abutteth vpon the land of John Skinner east surrendered by Robert Papworth gent. Rent – 18d; Fine 35s.203
After 1650 only selected records have been cited.
1655 Oct 30: Edmond Draper admitted in Fee to a messuage or tenement commonly called New England in the occupacion of William Papworth and 2 Closes of land & pasture to the Same adjoyneing containing 6 acres alsoe in the occupacion of the said William surrendered by Edmond Papworth & Susann his wife & Francis Wells. Rent 18d; Fine 35s.204
1661 Sept 12: John Tarbox admitted in Fee to a Cottage or tenement at Wellhead decended from Thomas Tarbox his brother. Rent 4d; Fine 15s.
Edmond Papworth admitted to the said Cottage surrendered by John Tarbox. Rent 4d; Fine 15s.205
1671 Nov 15: Edward Papworth & Alice his wife admitted to them & the heires of Edward to a messuage at Wellhead in the occupacion of Richard Fenn with an orchard backside to it belonging surrendered by the said Edward To himselfe & wife for life and afterwards to the Right heires of the said Edward. Rent 4d; Fine 20s.206
1684 Apr 9: Barnard Robinson Baskettmaker admitted in Fee to a Cottage or tenement scituate at Wellhead then or late in the tenure of John Marshall surrendered by Edmond Papworth vpon condicion the condicion being broken. Rent 4d; Fine 25s.
Mathew Harrold admitted in Fee to a Close or pightle of pasture lyeing at or nigh Wellhead the river running from Wellhead to Chalton towards the west part thereof and the land of George Lyle east & abbuts vpon a Cottage Now or late of Edmond Papworth towards the south surrendered by John Hobbs. Rent 4d; Fine 25s.207
1697 Oct 14: Edmond Papworth surrenders a Cottage at Wellhead & an orchard or pightle of pasture in which the said Cottage standeth To the vse of George Draper junior gentleman. [No Rent of Fine stated].208
Comment: “Based on similar surrenders which have seen I think that the probable explanation of the 1684 surrender by Edmond Papworth is that he had mortgaged the cottage to Barnard Robinson and the repayment of the principal plus interest was due a year later which he had failed to pay. In reality the mortgage would have continued. By the time of the second surrender in 1697 the mortgage may have been transferred to George Draper or to someone else who would have then been repaid.”209
1699 Apr 13: John Hunsdon gent admitted in Fee to one close or parcell of land & pasture called Buttlers Valley containing by estimacion eight acres & a halfe lyeing next Waynewood And alsoe to one acre and a halfe of land lyeing in Ringwell hill in the parishes of Hitchin & Ippollitts decended from Thomas Hunsdon gent. Rent [for 1st property] 1s 10d; Fine £2 10s. Rent [for 2nd property] 6d; Fine £1 2s 6d.
Elizabeth Hunsdon admitted in Fee to the aforesaid premisses Devised by the said Thomas Hunsdon. Rent as above; Fine -.
Thomas Papworth gentleman admitted in Fee to the aforesaid Close & one acre & an halfe of land surrendered by the said John & Elizabeth Hunsdon. Rent as above; Fine -.210
1676: Bridget Howlett’s 2000 edition of the 1676 Survey of Hitchin manor recorded a large number of properties belonging to Papworths. 1676 is later than our interest on this page, but since properties in the Survey were usually identified by former owners entries can be valuable for clarifying earlier years and generations. Following are some extracts from such entries:211Read more
A windmill in Standell Field “lately of a certain Edmund Papworth“. The footnote says, “This windmill, rather than a windmill in Charlton, appears to be the subject of a case brought in the Exchequer in 1670 over whether the tenants of the manor were obliged to take their corn and malt to be ground in the manorial mills… Depositions taken … stated that the mill held by Joseph Baker, the defendant, had been built by Edmund Papworth on copyhold land about 14 or 15 years earlier [1661-2] in a time of drought. … Edmund Papworth, who also gave evidence, was by 1670 in Miller at Charlton.212
“William Papworth and Avice his wife hold of the lady of this manor one messuage with appurtenances in Bancroft, once of William Papworth deceased, father of the aforesaid William who now holds it … with remainder to Thomas Papworth, one of the sons of the same William and Avice”
“The same William Papworth holds of the lady of this manor two half acres of land in Burford Field … lately being the land of Robert Papworth, his brother deceased“213 “and also one acre of meadow in Berrymeade … lately the land of the aforesaid Robert Papworth, his brother, and afterwards of George Papworth, and now in the tenure of the aforesaid William by copy …” 214
“William Papworth, gentleman, son of Robert Papworth, gentleman, holds of the lady of this manor one close of pasture with appurtenances called Leyes Conygree … once of Thomas Papworth, gentleman, afterwards of the aforesaid Robert and now in the separate tenures of the aforesaid William and John Papworth by copy …” 215
A footnote to this entry mentions a 17 May 1676 surrender of the property to William Papworth, in which Robert was called “his father, Robert Papworth the elder“.
“Sarah Papworth, Widow, holds of the lady of this manor for the term of her life with the remainder thereof to John Papworth, gentleman, one close of pasture called ‘le Great Conygree‘ … once of Thomas papworth, gentleman, … by copy …” 216
“Thomas Papworth of Bushey, gentleman, holds of the lady of this manor one close of pasture called Fishpond Close … lately land of a certain Robert Papworth, gentlemen, his brother …” 217
“Robert Papworth of St Sepulchre, in the county of Middlesex, gentlemen, holds of the lady of this manor diverse lands in the fields and parish of Hitchin namely … once of Thomas Papworth, gentlemen, his father, deceased and now in the tenure of John Papworth, gentlemen, his brother, by copy …” 218
“William Papworth holds freely of the lady of this manor one messuage in Bucklersbury … once of William Papworth, his father deceased … And also three acres of land … lately of Robert Papworth, his brother deceased …” 219
“Mary Papworth, Widow holds freely of the lady of this manor two cottages with appurtenances in Bancroft lately of Robert Papworth, gentleman, her husband deceased …”
“John Papworth, the younger, one of the sons of the aforesaid Mary, holds freely of the lady of this manor one cottage with appurtenances in the same street adjoining the two cottages last mentioned, once of the aforesaid Robert … Quit rent 3d.” 220
“John Papworth, gentleman holds freely of the lady of this manor one messuage with appurtenances at the lower end of Bancroft, once of Thomas Papworth, gentleman, his father deceased, afterwards of Robert Papworth, gentleman, his brother, and now in the tenure of the aforesaid John … Quit rent 1d.” 221
“… Robert Papworth, gentleman, William Papworth, his son, John Papworth, gentleman, … William Papworth, … hold freely of the lady of this manor …” 222 This shows that in 1767 there were 2 William Papworths, one the son of Robert Papworth, gentleman, and another.
“… once of Robert Papworth, gentleman and his wife Mary …” 223
“The homage discovered that Robert Papworth, the elder, customary tenant, had surrendered closes of land called Leyes Conygree and Long Conygree … to the use of his son and heir, William Papworth … William was admitted …” [Robert was therefore presumably still alive in 1676, or only recently deceased.] 224
Conclusions: Together these records from 1600-50 tell us that:
Page Last Updated: May 3, 2020