Brokets of southeast N America 17th C - The Broket Archive

Brokets of southeast N America 17th C

It seems that almost all the known Broket immigrants to N America during both the 17th and 18th C came to the southeast—in which we include not just Virginia and the wider Chesapeake Bay area, but also the Carolinas, and the West Indies too. Only one known Brockett is known to have immigrated to the north east during this whole period. For immigrants to the southeast in the 18th C, see this separate page.

Lots more research on the records of Brokets from this area is needed.1 If you can help in any way, do make contact. In particular, more Y-DNA evidence is vital.

Contents of this page:

1. Broket ‘Adventurers’ 1609-1639

Sir John Brokett III 1609-13
Edward Brocket, Gent c 1617
Thomas Brockett, Gent 1623-6

2. The challenge

3. Subsequent 17th C immigrants and mariners

Nicholas Brockett: Mariner, ?to Virginia by 1635
William Brockett/Brackett: Transported to Virginia 1638
Mary Brockett: Transported to Virginia 1652
Jane Brockett: Transported to Virginia 1655
Edward Brockett: Transported to Maryland by 1658
Samuell Brockett of Virginia and Maryland 1657-75
William Brockett: Transported to Virginia 1668
Bryan Brockett: Transported to Maryland by 1669
William Brocket/t: Transported to Maryland by 1677
John Brockett: Arrived in Barbados 1682
John Brocket: Mariner to West Indies 1688

1. Broket ‘Adventurers’ 1609-1639

An ‘Adventurer’ in those days meant: “A person who undertakes or shares in commercial adventures; a speculator”.2 and several Brokets were Adventurers. Back in the mid to late 1570s Sir John Brocket II (d 1598) had invested as an adventurer in at least one of Sir Martin Frobisher’s expeditions looking for the Northwest Passage.

In 1606 the joint-stock Virginia Company of London was set up to invite investors to fund a colony in North America, and famously established a settlement at Jamestown in 1607.3 The Company excited the interest and investment of English landowners especially during Sir Thomas Smythe’s treasureship, 1609-13. Returns from tobacco were much higher than from other land, and attempts to grow it in England were suppressed by the Company.4 It was attractive therefore for the nobility and landed gentry, always trying to invest in land with better returns, to speculate on the new opportunities opening up across the Atlantic. Thus some members of the 17th C Wheathampstead Broket clan—not quite past the peak of its wealth—speculated. There are records of a Broket knight and a couple of younger sons investing, but only one appears to have actually sailed across (drowning on the voyage).

As for later immigrants, only Bryan is known to have descended from the Wheathampstead clan. Samuell may have been more distantly related. Other Broket immigrants would have been from unrelated families, or in a couple of cases perhaps Brakets.

The 3 Brokets of Wheathampstead who are known to have been Adventurers—two of whom in all likelihood never sailed across—were:

Sir John Brokett III 1609-13

Not long after the Virginia Company’s incorporation, during Sir Thomas Smyth’s treasurership (1609-13), Sir John invested in a bill of adventure in the Company.5 He died in Sep 1613, so the investment would have passed to his son John Brockett of Caswell Esq (1583-1659) by or around then. At some point the investment materialised into 200 acres on the Elizabeth River in Norfolk VA, probably used for growing tobacco. It’s unlikely that either of them actually went there; they were investors in the tobacco crop. Both were buried in Wheathampstead, England.

How long John of Caswell kept the land and its proceeds is unknown but in 1639 it was assigned to Henry Watson by Francis Roulston, alias Willcox, to whom John had previously assigned it:6+Read more

Francis Roulston alias Willcox hasn’t yet been identified in England or Virginia, but the 200 acres—this time specified as lying on the north side of the Broad Creek, a branch of the eastward branch of the Elizabeth River—had subsequently been inherited by Henry Watson’s widow, assigned by her to Richard Foster, by him to Richard Day and Richard Woolman, and by them to Bartholomew Hoskins, all by 6 Mar 1648, along with another 200 acres in the same location, which Woolman had acquired in exchange for transporting 3 men and a woman.8

Comment: Coincidentally, in 1703 William Brockett sold 70 acres near Church Creek on the west branch of the same Elizabeth River in Norfolk County, Virginia. At first sight you might think this was too much of a coincidence that some time before 1639 John Brockett of Caswell had relinquished ownership of 200 acres at the head of the broad creek of Elizabeth River in Low Co, New Norfolk, Virginia. But to do so would be a case of jumping to conclusions.+Read more

Edward Brocket, Gent c 1617

This unmarried Adventurer went on a mission in 1617—perhaps to Virginia—for Sir Thomas Smythe (Smith) and associates of the Virginia Company. He had previously invested in an expedition to Timbuktu. By 1620 he had died. His executor took Sir Thomas Smythe to court. Edward was with little doubt the third son of Nicolas Esq and Joanna of Willingale, Essex.

Thomas Brockett, Gent 1623-6

Thomas Brockett, Gentleman, was listed as an Adventurer of the Virginia Company 1623-6.10 He was most likely either:

· Sir John III’s younger son.
· A son of Nicolas and Joanna of Willingale Doe, which would make him an elder brother to Edward above.
+++
It’s not so likely he was the 4th son of Gentleman William of Esyndon.

No record of Thomas in N America has been found; he probably never sailed across.

2. The challenge

Records of Brokets in the southeast US during the 17th and 18th centuries present different challenges from those in the northeast. We know of only one immigrant to the northeast US during 17-18th C and he not only survived but current research suggests that the large number of Brokets—and some Brakets—subsequently recorded there during that period can fairly safely be considered his descendants. By contrast, we know of about a dozen 17-18th C records of individual Broket immigrants to different places in the southeast. And connections between them and descendants from them are mostly unknown and may be unknowable. As more archives digitise relevant documents and more DNA evidence appears some mysteries will be solved, but some records will have been lost, or never even made. But this isn’t to say that large numbers of unrecorded Brokets came to the southeast at this time. There were only about 50 estimated Broket households in England c 1650 and many of them are known about fairly well. And at least the challenge presented by the records in the northeast of the interchangeabilty of the spelling Broket and Braket for their surname isn’t so common in southeastern ones—except for Carolina William 1748-1821, a descendant of the northeast clan.

Indentured servitude

Read more

The keeping and survival of primary records

Read more

Negative proof

This is an accepted genealogical method, however in the absence of other supporting circumstantial evidence it must be used with caution. Among these southeastern 17th (and some 18th) C Brokets there are individuals who only appear in a single record, and the temptation to link them too readily to others without reasonable support should be resisted. Please tell us if we failed to do so.

3. Subsequent 17th C immigrants and mariners

Two of the 11 were mariners who no doubt didn’t stay. At least 7 came over as indentured servants. None of the records found so far indicate if any of them had children.

Nicholas Brockett: Part owner of a cargo shipped from Virginia to London by 1635

Nicholas Brockett was involved in a lawsuit in 1635 involving wages due to sailors on the ship Increase, which had transported cargo to Virginia, and in which Nicholas had an interest. With little doubt this was the Nicholas from Lincolnshire, born 1593, and Stepney, London who later sailed to the Bermudas. The only other known contemporary Nicholas was the son of Richard of Ippolletts, mentioned in his father’s Will of 1603, but it’s unlikely it was him.

William Brockett/Brackett 1638

William was transported to Accomack Co, Virginia 1638 sponsored by Thomas Burbage,21 probably as an indentured servant. Nugent listed him as Brackett and one of 25 persons transported for Burbage.22 William was the only Brackett listed by Nugent. Filby listed 7 Brackets emigrating 1620-50.

It’s unlikely that he was the William who signed a land deed in Norfolk VA in 1703, but not impossible if he was especially young when he arrived. Otherwise, no further trace of William (whether Brockett or Brackett) has been found in southeast US records; perhaps he was one of the many thousands who died without any family in the harsh conditions.

Most male indentured servants at this time came aged 15-24, so William was likely b c 1614-23. Of course many came younger and some older, but the known English William Brocketts born within that time frame were:+Read more

Mary Brockett 1652

In 1652 Robert Younge received 260 acres in Rappahanock Co, Virginia, for transporting indentured servants James Baggs, William Motley, Thomas Haines, Anthony Rone, William Syms and Mary Brockett.25

Because there were so few women among the colonists Mary, unless she died, probably quickly married once she had served out her indenture, and her surname changed.

Mary was probably b c 1628-37, perhaps a younger sister of emigant William and daughter of John and Joan of Dunton, baptised 1634. Alternatively she may have been the daughter of Francis and Chatherin, baptised in Kirkby on Bain, Lincs, the same year.26 A third and perhaps less likely possibility—because it would mean that she emigrated aged 31—is that she was baptised in Dorking 1621, possible older sister of Jane, emigrated 1655.

Edward Brockett by 1658

A document from Maryland containing a series of land claims brought dated 10 May 1658, recorded Edward’s transportation between 1652-58.27

“James Berry entreth these his rights viz, for transporting himselfe Elizabeth his wife William and Roger Berry two Sons Martha Berry his daughter also Elizabeth Howell, Thomas Skillington William Furbot John Mourth Mary Longo Servants into this province in February 1652, and also these Servants in the years following viz. John Howse William Bury Gerrard Cumberford Thomas Cade Edward Brockett John Carre George Cook Thomas Green Mary George Anne”

Gibb’s index entry “transported 1652” is incorrect,28 Edward was transported between 1652-58. Most male indentured servants at this time were transported aged 15-24, so if that applied to Edward, he would have been born c 1628-43. The only record known of possible parents are of Nicholas and Agnes, who baptised a son Edward in St Dunstan Stepney, London 1635.29 No further record has been found of Edward.

Jane Brockett 1655

In Oct 1655 William Thomas of Northumberland Co, Virginia, received 200 acres for transporting indentured servants John Gibbins, Elizabeth Glissen, Joan an Irish woman and Jane Brockett.30 Jane was probably b c 1631-40, possibly a daughter of John and Mary, baptised in Dorking, Surrey 1628.31 Alternatively she may have been the daughter of Mathewe and Alice, baptised 1640 in Mareham Le Fen, Lincs.32 Because there were so few women among the colonists Jane, unless she died, probably quickly married once she had served out her indenture, and her surname changed.

Samuell Brockett of Virginia and Maryland 1657-75

No record has so far been found showing how Samuell come to the Chesapeake Bay area.33 But by 1657 Samuell was recorded in Northumberland Co, Virginia as a witness to a sizable tobacco transaction and a purchasor at an auction, and 3 further records—in all likelihood of him—have been found between 1660-75:


1657: 20 Jul. “It appeareing to the Court by the Oathes of Thomas Gaskin & Samuell Brockett, that Henry Mayes hath paid fower hundred & fifty pounds of tobacco & caske unto Thomas Brewer out of a Bill of 465 lb & caske dated the first of March 1655. It is therefore ordered that the said Brewer acquitt & discharge the said Mayes of & from the said summe of 450 lb. of tobacco and caske out of the said Bill & also to pay him all Court charges.”34
+++
1657: 24 Jul. “The goods of Thomas Reede deceased sold at an out cry as foll. To John Hulett, to Mr. Dameron, To Mr. Thomas Brewer, To Richard Nelmes, To Samuell Brockett, to Jno: Hulett 2330 Present William Presley, Sherriffe of Northumberland County 21th 9 br. This Out Cry was recorded.”35
+++
1660: A series of pleadings in a case Samuell Brockett brought against Mrs Sarah Marsh regarding a tract of land in Kent.36
1. 21 Feb 1660: Samuell Brockett brought a petition before the Governor and Councell of Maryland, claiming the right to a tract of land in Kent on behalf of his wife, An, daughter of John Abbott of the Isle of Kent, which Mrs Sarah Marsh unjustly detained from him. Mrs Marsh’s attorney, Mr Richard Smyth, answered that she does not know of this right. To which Samuell Brockett showed the court a certificate signed by two witnesses prepared to testify in court saying that “An the wife of Samuell Brocket was the daughter of John Abbott of the Isle of Kent”. Smyth was satisfied by this, and the case was deferred to the court’s next meeting.37
2. 14 Nov 1661: Samuell Brocckett [sic] demanded a writ to arrest Sarah Marsh. A Warrant was issued to the Sherriff of Ann Arrundell County to arrest her.
3. 27 Nov 1661: Samuell Brocckett [sic] brought a petition again before the Governor and Councell of Maryland. He said he had previously sued Mrs Sarah Mash [sic] at a court held at Saint Marys 28 Feb 1661 for a parcel of land in Kent County for which he had a Patent, but her Attorney Mr Richard Smith claimed he could prove the land had been forfeited for rebellion. The plaintiff then requested the court to make Mrs Mash prove this or else allow him to take possession of the land. The court ordered a check of the records.
4. 28 Nov 1661: Plaintiff was granted a deferral till the next court. [However no further record has been found on the Maryland State Archives website.]
+++
1666: Samuell Brockett was called to be a witness in a large claim of debt by William Smyth of St Marys against William Price of Charles County (30,000 pounds of tobacco & Caske). “Samuell Brockett declar’d he could say nothing in the Bussiness” [p.310] 38
+++
1674: 10 Jul. An indenture of sale of land was signed and sealed between Capt William Boarman of St Maryes County Maryland Gent and Samuell Brockett of St Maryes County, Planter. Boarman was fully satisfied with the “certaine Sume of Tobacco” Brockett had paid him for it, and the land was described as about 50 acres lying in St Maryes County next adjoining to the land of Boarman purchased of Humphrey Howell on the South East and by the first branch of the Creek with a line drawn into the Swamp on the North East by some marked trees or sometimes a run of fresh water on North West and by the Swamp and Hills on the South West.39

Discussion: Thomas Gaskin or Gascoyne was an early Adventurer and Planter, with his first land patent in 1636 in Accomack Co and another in Northumberland Co in 1649. He patented 512 acres there with Henry Mayes in 1664, who according to Thomas’ Will of 1663-5 was his son-in-law.40 Samuell Brockett was therefore associating with prominent men in the community by 1657. So, by then he was a free man already established in the community, and by Feb 1660 at the latest had married An, daughter of John Abbott of the Isle of Kent, by right of whom Samuell owned a tract of land in Kent. John Abbott was one of the 12 freemen of the Isle of Kent in 1638.41

Northumberland Co was the same county to which Jane was transported in Oct 1655, but nothing more can be deduced from that than that it was a common destination for hundreds of others each year. How old was Samuell when he witnessed in court under oath in 1657? Presumably 21 or more, and since he was still buying land in 1675 he is unlikely to have been born much before 1600, and possibly as late as 1636. The only known Samuels born in England 1600-40 were:+Read more


As a married man with property it is likely that Samuell had children. One could easily speculate that the William recorded in Norfolk Co in 1703, if not the William recorded transported by 1667 above, was his son, and perhaps also Francis I below, died 1712. But this would be pure speculation, not based on any actual evidence.

William Brockett 1668

William was the only Broket in an online database of over 15,000 indenture contracts of servants sent to foreign plantations from the Registers of: Bristol 1654-86, Middlesex 1682-85 and London 1682-92 and 1718-59.43 For information about the Registers+Read more


Without having seen the original document which is in the Bristol 1654-86 Register, the summary of it supplied by the database is:

William Brockett, indenture dated 6 Aug 1668, destination Virginia, agent’s name Sarah Tandy

The database had a general comment that an average length of indenture for males was 4 years. This is a rounded-down number for the more detailed explanation the website gives in the description of the Bristol 1654-86 Registers: “Lengths of indenture varied from 3 to 7 years, with the average length for females being 4.3 years, and for males, 4.44 years.”

Who might William have been and might he have been the same William that was in one or more of these 5 following more-or-less contemporary records:
1. William Brockett recorded in Kent Co, Maryland, 1677-1719, see below.
2. The 1703 Norfolk Co VA land deed.
3. William Brockett who on 18 Feb 1678 was one of two witnesses to the Will of Roger SHACOCKE of Kent County on Maryland’s Eastern Shore.45 William was unlikely to have been a convict, but does this suggest that at that time he wasn’t an indentured servant?
5. Nash came to the conclusion that this was probably the William who, with wife Mary, signed the Norfolk 1703 deed. He further speculated that he might have been related to a family from Dorking, Surrey.

Proof statement:    Read more

Bryan Brockett of Maryland 1669 and 1675

Two records from Charles County in the southern central portion of Maryland have been found, and also one from England:

Record 1. A claim to land by the transporter of Bryan Brockett to Maryland dated 11 Sep 1669:

Sep xjth MDClxix.
Thomas Thorowgood of Charles County Gent proved Right to foure hundred acres of land for transporting himselfe Frances his wife Thomas Thorne Charles Beckham Bryan Brockett Alice Scarbrugh Edward Hammond and William Butler. Warrant then issued in the name of the said Thomas Thorowgood for foure hundred acres of land (due to him for the Consideration aforesaid) cert’ retur’ xjth of December next.48

For an explanation of this first Record:    Read more


Record 2. On 26 Nov 1675 Brian Brockett was one of two witnesses to the Will of Enoch FIELD of Charles County, Maryland, the other witness was John Nuby. The bequest named in the abstract was of 250 acres at Piscataway.51

Record 3. Briant Brokett, born 3 Mar 1655 Grimston, Norfolk: “the Sonne of John Brokett Minister of Grimston”.

Discussion: Is the following a good proof statement to show that the three records are of the same person?    Read more

William Brockett of Kent Co Maryland 1677-1719

6 records of William Brockett have been found from Kent Co Maryland:

1. The assignment on 27 Mar 1677 by William Brockett of Kent County of the land due to him for his service, confirmed 9 Jun 1677.58

March 27th 1677
Wm Brockett proved then one right due to him for his tyme of service performed in this Province.
Jur cor [sworn before] me Matt: Warde
I Wm Brockett of the County of kent haue sold assigned & sett over unto John Wedge of the same County all my right of land due to me for my tyme of service performed in this Province, as wittnes my hand & Seale this 9th day of June 1677
Wm Brockett sealed
Test [Witness] Jno: Spicer
June 22th 1677. Warrant then granted to Jno: Wedge of Kent County for three hundred & fifty acres of Land (300 acres due by the aforegoing assignments from Clia: Tilden, Jno: Spicer, Isaac Gibson, Robt. Perke & Wm Brockett, & fifty acres more by the renewment of a Warrant [p 580] for the same quantity granted him the 22th of April 1675

2. A patent for 300 acres of land in Mount Pleasant, Maryland, dated 5 Sep 1579 granted to John Wedge of Kent County , due by assignment from the following who were awarded the acres on completion of their service:59

William Brockett and Robert Perke: 100 acres
John Spicer for Margaret his wife: 50 acres
Thomas Bruffe for Susana his wife: 50 acres
and from Isaac Gibson for transporting himself and Katherine his wife to inhabit: 100 acres.

If you’d like to see the full text of the patent +Read more

3. On 18 Feb 1678 William Brockett was one of two witnesses to the Will of Roger Shacocke of Kent Co, probated 31 Mar 1679.60

4. On 17 Feb 1703 at Kent County Court, Maryland, Ed Walwin authorised Attorney Edward Benwicke to prosecute on his behalf for damages against William Brocket.61

5. In March 1704 Kent County Court recorded an action of trespass on the case brought by Edward Mahar against William Brockett.62

6. In March 1719 Kent County Court recorded an action of trespass on the case brought by James Rae against William Brockett. The court note “Cepi Discontd by the Plt ” was probably the sheriff or bailiff’s notice that he had seized goods or the like from Brockett and Rae dropped further complaint.63

Discussion:+Read more

John Brockett 1682

Arrived in Barbados in 1682 aged 19.66 John was b c 1663, probable son of Thomas and Abigall, baptized Reading 1666.67

John Brocket 1688

John Brocket of Stepney Middlesex Mariner invested in a ship bound for the West Indies, arriving Jamaica Aug 1688.

Page Last Updated: December 23, 2018

Footnotes

For full bibliographical details please see the sections Publications or Glossary.

Expand

[1] The spelling 'Broket' is used in this website as a kind of lowest common denominator when no specific variant is being referred to, like Brocket, Brockett, Brockette.

[2] NSOED 1993 vol 1 p 32 (16th C meaning).

[3] For a good overview see the online Encyclopedia Virginia at goo.gl/2DkSTM (accessed 19 Oct 2018).

[4] Thirsk 1984 pp 259ff.

[5] goo.gl/KNWGeF (accessed 5 Apr 2018). A search through Kingsbury's Introduction (1905) didn't reveal the bill of adventure.

[6] Nugent 1934- vol 1 p 110; Virginia State Land Office Patents No. 1, 1623-1643 (v.1 & 2), p. 653 (Reel 1).

[7] Communication from David Bethell 5 Jun 2018).

[8] Nugent 1934- vol 1 p 172

[9] Grant to Richard Pinner of 150 acres dated 20 Apr. 1653, p. 242

[10] Kinsbury 1906- vol 4 p 366

[11] Fischer 1989 p 227.

[12] Fischer 1989 p 228.

[13] Sacks 1991 ch 9

[14] 2005, Introduction at goo.gl/mSySPh (accessed 9 Apr 2018).

[15] Edited by Coldham in 1988, and cited by Sacks 1991 ch 8.

[16] 2005, Gibb's Introduction at goo.gl/mSySPh (accessed 9 Apr 2018)

[17] Sacks 1991 ch 8

[18] Sacks 1991 ch 8.

[19] Fischer 1989 pp 207-36.

[20] Fischer 1989 pp 13ff, esp pp 27-8.

[21] Filby 1981 citing Greer 1912 p 45.

[22] 1934- p 110

[23] Searches made on 29 Jan 2018 in: FindMyPast between 1550-1630, and Ancestry.com and IGI between 1595-1625.

[24] Parish Register (Norfolk Record Office PD 674/1).

[25] Nugent 1934- p 369

[26] IGI

[27] Maryland Archives ref: LAND OFFICE (Patent Record, Original) Book Q, pg. 32, 1652 (01/28/04/062, S920-5); Gibb 2005, MSA SC 4341-, Q:32 at goo.gl/TvV1A1 (accessed 9 Apr 2018); Skordas 1968 p 61.

[28] Gibb 2005, MSA SC 4341-, Q:32 at goo.gl/TvV1A1 (accessed 9 Apr 2018)

[29] IGI

[30] Nugent 1934- p 325

[31] IGI

[32] IGI.

[33] Hotten 1874 doesn't mention him.

[34] Northumberland Co Order Book Abstracts - 1652-7, p 94: Northumberland County Court 20th July 1657

[35] Northumberland Co, VA, Deed and Will Abstracts 1655-1658, p 110

[36] Proceedings of the Provincial Court, 1658-1662, vol 41 pp 422, 491, 496, 505 (Lib. S (17244), Pet., pp. 422, 509, 607, 803. Lib. F.F. (17246), Sum., pp. 238, 309) at goo.gl/4Wo4tG etc (accessed 16 Apr 2018)

[37] On the basis of this case the secondary source Barnes 2005 p 44 recorded the marriage.

[38] Proceedings of the Provincial Court, 1666-1670, vol 57 p 72 (Liber FF p 310) at goo.gl/Cj7AfE (accessed 16 Apr 2018)

[39] Proceedings of the Provincial Court, 1670/1-1675, vol 65 pp 498-9 (Liber M M p 485) at goo.gl/Gkqt5f (accessed 16 Apr 2018)

[40] Dorman 2005 p 55

[41] goo.gl/MZJyeU (accessed 8 Apr 2018), citing Liber M C, p. pp. 39-40, Assembly Proceedings, February--March 1638 /9. 31, Archives of Maryland, Vol. I

[42] IGI

[43] Or Brokit, Braket, Breket, Briket or Bruket and variants at goo.gl/9QiK94 (accessed 9 Apr 2018)

[44] Sacks 1991 ch 8

[45] Baldwin 1904 vol 1 p 218, referring to the actual Will Book 10 p 80.

[46] Sacks 1991 ch 9

[47] Sacks 1991 ch 8 footnotes 12, 19

[48] Gibb 2005: HH:425 Film No:SR 8206, Transcript: 12:343 (SR 7354), MSA SC 4341-5509, at goo.gl/TvV1A1 (accessed 9 Apr 2018). Image obtained 13 Apr 2018.

[49] Gibb 2005 at goo.gl/mSySPh (accessed 9 Apr 2018)

[50] Information kindly supplied by David Bethell, 11 May 2018, gathered indirectly from Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Appeals of Maryland, by Richard W Gill, Clerk of the Court of Appeals, 1846, Annapolis.

[51] Baldwin 1904 vol 1 p 181, referring to the actual Will Book 5 p 122.

[52] Gibb 2005: DD:507 (SR 8202)

[53] A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789 by Edward C. Papenfuse et al, available at goo.gl/E6d8Zj (accessed 12 May 2018)

[54] Gibb 2005, MSA SC 4341-5509, HH:425 Film No:SR 8206

[55] 1968 p 61

[56] goo.gl/xCk5Re (accessed 9 Apr 2018)

[57] A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789 by Edward C. Papenfuse et al, available at goo.gl/E6d8Zj (accessed 12 May 2018)

[58] Maryland Archives ref: LAND OFFICE (Patent Record, Original) LL: 579-580, 1677 (SR 7548, SM215-13); Gibb 2005: LL:579, Transcript: 15:414, MSA SC 4341-, at goo.gl/TvV1A1 (accessed 9 Apr 2018); Skordas 1968 p 61.

[59] LAND OFFICE (Patent Record, Original) WC 3, pgs. 184-185, 1679 (01/28/04/035, S920-33); Gibb 2005: WC3:184 Film No:SR 7550, Transcript: 21:106 (SR 7362), MSA SC 4341-95 at goo.gl/TvV1A1 (accessed 9 Apr 2018).

[60] Baldwin 1904 p 218, referring to the actual Will Book 10 p 80.

[61] Kent County Bonds, Indentures, and Land Records, 1694-1707, vol 669 p 27, at goo.gl/hu1cyJ (accessed 16 Apr 2018)

[62] Kent County Bonds, Indentures, and Land Records, , at goo.gl/2sJCB3 (accessed 16 Apr 2018)

[63] Kent County Court, Proceedings, 1718-1720, vol 833 p 390, at goo.gl/jwdpck (accessed 16 Apr 2018)

[64] 2005, Gibb's Introduction at goo.gl/mSySPh (accessed 9 Apr 2018)

[65] Fischer 1989 pp 231

[66] Chandler 1979.

[67] IGI.